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The High Middle Ages
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
The Crusades
Main Idea
The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of
the Holy Land, had a profound economic, political, and social
impact on the societies involved.
Reading Focus
• Why did the Europeans launch the Crusades?
• What happened during the Crusades?
• What were the effects of the Crusades?
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
Launching the Crusades
Goal of Crusades
Muslims Control Holy Land
• European Christians launched
series of religious wars,
Crusades, in Middle Ages
• Jerusalem in control of North
African Muslims, Fatimids, late
• Goal to take Jerusalem, Holy
Land, away from Muslims
• Turkish Muslims took control of
Persia, other lands, persecuted
Christians visiting region
• Jerusalem site of Holy Temple of
Jews, also where Jesus crucified,
buried, was to come again
• Vital to Christians to control city
• Turks attacked Byzantine
Empire, destroyed army, 1071
• Emperor turned to Western
Europe, Pope Urban II, for help
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
The Council of Clermont
Pope Urban II called church leaders to council in Clermont,
• Described dangers faced by Byzantines
• Called on Christian warriors to put aside differences, fight
against Turks
– Effective call to arms
– Hundreds of knights, nobles volunteered for Crusades
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
Who answered call?
• For knights, this was a chance to use their fighting
skills, something they enjoyed and did well. They
were delighted to have such a worthy battle to fight.
• For peasants, this was a chance to escape from their
dreary life in the feudal system. The pope promised
that if they died while fighting a holy crusade, they
would automatically be welcomed into heaven.
• For others, it was a chance to have an adventure, and
perhaps even to get rich.
The High Middle Ages
• Each crusader had a huge
red cross, made out of
fabric, stitched onto their
shirts or armor.
• It made all crusaders,
irrespective of rank or
background, appear to be a
unified army.
• It reminded the crusaders
that they were fighting a
holy cause. The red cross
was added to flags and
Section 1
The Red Cross:
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
• Most were French, but Bohemians,
Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians and
• Very ill-prepared for war
• Knew nothing about the geography,
climate, or culture of the Holy Land
• No Grand strategy to capture Jerusalem
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
The Result
• After about two years of harsh traveling, hunger,
disease, freezing weather, and quarrels
amongst themselves, the 12,000 crusaders (less
than 1/4th of the original finally arrived in
• After a two-month siege of the city, the city fell.
The crusaders had won back Jerusalem on July
15, 1099.
• Some men stayed. Some headed home.
• Those who returned brought back new foods
and new forms of culture.
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
They won!
• A narrow strip of land
• Stretched about 650 miles from Edessa in
the north to Jerusalem in the south.
• Four feudal Crusader states were carved
out of this territory, each ruled by a
European ruler
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
Second Crusade
• Muslims began retaking lands lost in First
• Took city of Edessa, capital of one Crusader
state, 1144
• European leaders called for Second Crusade,
launched in 1147 to recapture city
• Second Crusade a failure, took no lands from
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
Queen Eleanor
• Rumors she recruited people while riding on a white
• Her and 300 females decided to travel along on the
• This was criticized by observers of trip.
• They dressed in armor and carrying lances, the
women never fought.
• When she reached the city of Antioch, she rejoined
with her uncle Raymond.
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
• She decided to side with Raymond view about how to fight the
• He thought that the best strategic objective of the Crusade would be
to recapture Edessa, thus protecting the Western presence in the
Holy Land
• Louis only wanted to reach Jerusalem, which wasn’t a good idea.
• Louis demanded that Eleanor follow him to Jerusalem.
• Eleanor, furious, announced to one and all that their marriage was
not valid in the eyes of God, for they were related through some
family connections to an extent prohibited by the Church.
• Louis nonetheless forced Eleanor to honor her marriage vows and
ride with him by arresting her.
• The expedition did fail, and a defeated Eleanor and Louis returned
to France on separate ships.
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
Third Crusade
• New leader arose in Muslim world, 1177
• Salah ad-Din, known to Europeans as
• Overthrew Fatimids, took title of sultan
• Set out to take back Crusader states,
succeeded, drove European Christians out
of Jerusalem
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
• Was the most famous Muslim of the 1100s
• His own people considered him a most
devout man
• Even Christians regarded him as honest
and brave.
• Just wanted crusaders to go back into
their territories
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
He said:
“I think that when God grants me victory
over the rest of Palestine, I shall divided
my territories, make a will stating my
wishes, then set sail on this sea for their
far-off lands and pursue the Franks there,
so as to free the earth from anyone who
does not believe in Allah, or die in the
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
We three kings:
Three of Europe’s most power monarchs led the third
1. Philip II (Augustus) of France
2. Frederick I (Barbarossa) of Germany
3. Richard the Lion-Hearted of England
• Frederick was killed, Philip quarreled with
Richard, returned home
• Only King Richard the Lion-Hearted of
England fought in Holy Land
The High Middle Ages
Section 1
• Mutual Respect
– Richard, Saladin admired each other as military
leaders, gentlemen
– Made proposals for peace, including marriage alliance
of Richard’s sister, Saladin’s brother; never took place
because of religious differences
• Fierce Fighting
– Richard, Saladin fought fiercely for control of Holy Land
– Richard won several battles, not able to drive Muslims out
of Holy Land
– Richard could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England
– Two agreed to a truce, Saladin promised that unarmed
Christian pilgrims could freely visit.
Section 1
The High Middle Ages
Effects of the Crusades
Economic Changes
• Historic evidence of trade between Muslims, Byzantines, Europeans prior to
• Crusades enhanced existing trade
• Returning Crusaders brought more goods, spices, textiles, to Europe
• Increase in trade added to changing European economy during Middle Ages
Political Changes
Social Changes
• Crusades led to deaths of many
knights, nobles
• Lands left vulnerable
• Other ambitious nobles took control
of unoccupied lands
• Nobles then had more power,
influence in Europe
• Some Europeans respected other
cultures, others intolerant
• Many viewed non-Christians as
enemies, persecuted Jews
• Holy Land Jews saw Crusaders as
cruel invaders
• Relations strained for centuries
The High Middle Ages
Section 1