Download Classical conditioning

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Adherence management coaching wikipedia, lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia, lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Psychophysics wikipedia, lookup

Classical conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Insufficient justification wikipedia, lookup

Eyeblink conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Learning theory (education) wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Psychology: An Introduction
Benjamin Lahey
11th Edition
Slides by Kimberly Foreman
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter Seven:
Basic Principles of Learning
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Definition of Learning
Learning:
- any relatively permanent change in
behavior brought about through
experience
- change is not always immediately obvious
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical Conditioning
Classical
conditioning:
- stimulus:
- arbitrary
- response:
- elicited
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical Conditioning (cont.)
Association:
- key element in
classical
conditioning
- association of two
stimuli
- neutral stimulus
- timing
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical Conditioning (cont.)
Terminology of
classical conditioning:
- unconditioned
stimulus (UCS)
- unconditioned
response (UCR)
- conditioned stimulus
(CS)
- conditioned response
(CR)
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical Conditioning (cont.)
Definition of classical conditioning:
- form of learning in which a previously
neutral stimulus (CS) is followed by
a stimulus (UCS) that elicits an
unconditioned response (UCR)
- does not depend on the behavior of the
individual being conditioned
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical Conditioning (cont.)
Importance of classical conditioning:
- helpful in understanding puzzling aspects of
human behavior:
- Little Albert
- counterconditioning
- plays a role in our physical health
- sexual arousal
- phobias
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning:
- positive reinforcement
- negative reinforcement
- punishment
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Positive Reinforcement
Issues in the use of
positive reinforcement:
- timing:
- delay of reinforcement
- consistency in the
delivery of
reinforcement
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Positive Reinforcement (cont.)
Issues in the use of positive reinforcement
(cont.):
- primary reinforcers
- secondary reinforcers
- schedules of reinforcement:
- fixed ratio
- variable ratio
- fixed interval
- variable interval
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Schedules of Reinforcement
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Positive Reinforcement
Shaping:
- method of
successive
approximations
- Skinner box
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement:
- removal or avoidance of a negative event
- escape conditioning
- avoidance conditioning
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Punishment
Punishment:
- a negative consequence that leads to
a reduction in the frequency of
the behavior that produced it
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Punishment (cont.)
Dangers of punishment:
- reinforcing to the punisher
- generalized inhibiting effect
- learning to dislike and act aggressively
toward the punisher
- criticism trap
- does not teach appropriate behavior
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Punishment (cont.)
Guidelines for the use of punishment:
- do not use physical punishment
- punish the inappropriate behavior immediately
- positively reinforce appropriate behavior to
take the place of the inappropriate
behavior
- punish specific behaviors
- do not mix punishment with rewards for the
same behavior
- do not back down
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Contrasting Classical and
Operant Conditioning
Classical
conditioning:
- association between
two stimuli
- involves reflexive,
involuntary
behaviors
- UCS is paired with the
CS independent of
individual’s
behavior
Operant conditioning
- association between a
response and the
resulting
consequence
- complicated voluntary
behaviors
- reinforcing
consequence
occurs only if the
response being
conditioned has just
been elicited
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Stimulus Discrimination and
Generalization
Stimulus discrimination:
- discrimination
between appropriate
and inappropriate
occasions for a
response
Stimulus generalization:
- one does not always
discriminate between
stimuli that are similar
to one another
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Extinction: Learning When to
Quit
Removing the source of learning:
- partial reinforcement effect:
- schedule of reinforcement and type of
reinforcement greatly influence the speed
of extinction
- response prevention:
- avoidance responses are prevented to be sure
the individual sees that the negative
consequences do not occur
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Extinction: Learning When to
Quit (cont.)
Spontaneous Recovery:
- if there is a long period of
time between
presentations of the
CS, the fear can
reappear the next
time the CS is
presented
Disinhibition:
- if an intense but unrelated
stimulus event occurs, it
may cause the strength
of the extinguished
response to return
temporarily
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Theoretical Interpretations of
Learning
Cognition or
connection?
- place learning:
- cognitive map
- latent learning
- insight learning and
learning sets:
- insight
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Theoretical Interpretations of
Learning (cont.)
Modeling:
- eliciting desired behavior by showing how
it is done
- Albert Bandura:
- modeling:
- Bobo doll
- vicarious reinforcement
- vicarious punishment
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Theoretical Interpretations of
Learning (cont.)
Biological factors in learning:
- Cook and Mineka:
- lab monkeys fearful of snakes after watching
video
- John Garcia:
- learned taste aversion:
- chemotherapy side effect
- wildlife preservation:
- sheep and coyotes
© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.