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Recent Discoveries in Human
Genetics Affirm Genesis 1-11
as Authentic History
John Baumgardner
Logos Research Associates
For the past 200 years
Satan has been directing a
massive campaign to rewrite
the physical history of the
earth in the minds of the
human race.
Just what is the Bible’s
account of human history?
Discovery from human
mitochondrial DNA:
We all share a common
female ancestor who lived
only about 200 generations
Cutaway view of a mitochondrion.
Layout of gene
coding regions
around DNA loop
There are 16,569
DNA base pairs in
the mitochondrial
We inherit all our mtDNA
through our mothers.
The key findings relative to
human mtDNA
Small amount of observed variation
Today, on average, our mtDNA differs from
the consensus sequence at only 22 out of
16569 locations.
High observed mtDNA mutation rate
0.05 -0.10 mutations/generation
—this measured implies at most about 200
generations of humans since creation !
Eve’s Actual Mitochondrial DNA Sequence!
Carter, R.W., Mitochondrial diversity within modern human populations, Nucleic
Acids Res. 35(9):3039–3045, 2007.
Carter, R.W., The Non-Mythical Adam and Eve! Refuting errors by Francis Collins
and BioLogos, August 20, 2011,
Moreover, there appear to be
three main mtDNA lineages within
the people groups around the
Three main mitochondrial DNA lineages: M, N, R
M and N are separated
by only 8 mutations and
R and N by only one.
Now the sons of Noah who came out of
the ark were Shem and Ham and
Japheth... These three were the sons
of Noah, and from these the whole
earth was populated.
Genesis 9:18-19
According to this text, everyone
alive today has a maternal ancestry
that traces back to one of the wives
of Ham, Shem, and Japheth.
It is therefore not surprising that
we should find three main mtDNA
Another major finding:
mtDNA lineages reveal a
recent dispersal of the
entire human family out of
the Middle East—consistent
with the Tower of Babel
being a genuine historical
mtDMA comparisons show the entire human
family dispersed from the Middle East recently.
June 2003
How did human ethnic differences
Scripture provides the answer!
What does genetic diversity reduction
look like?
The high level of ethnic diversity within
the human race today testifies to a division
of an ancestral human population into many
small groups that remained largely in
isolation from one another over many
generations, just as the Biblical account
reveals. This pattern is also apparent in
the mtDNA lineages.
Moreover, the Babel account likewise
provides an explanation for the amazing
number of distinct human languages. It is
not easy to find a plausible alternative.
Another major finding:
Very little variation exists
in the human Y-chromosome
across the human race. The
evidence indicates that we all
descend from a single man
who lived recently, known as
‘Y-chromosomal Adam’.
Y-Chromosomal Adam
 Note: Only guys carry the Y chromosome.
 Studies show that Y chromosomes in the
human race today trace from a single
 The fact that there is so genetic little
variation indicates this man lived in the
recent past.
 We will likely soon know his exact Ysequence.
Another major finding:
Human/chimp genomes are
profoundly different.
“blown to pieces”
According to evolution thinking, chimps are our
closest living relatives. Yet Page’s team found that
the chimp Y chromosome has only two-thirds as many
distinct genes or gene families as the human Y
chromosome and only 47% as many protein-coding
elements as humans. Also, more than 30% of the
chimp Y chromosome lacks an alignable counterpart on
the human Y chromosome and vice versa.
Upon seeing these and other stark differences
between the respective Y chromosomes, Page, the
main author of the paper, says “the relationship
between the human and chimp Y chromosomes has
been blown to pieces”.
Human/chimp genomes are
profoundly different.
Only the centromeres
align. Most regions can
not be aligned at all.
Each Pixel is 100 nucleotides (first 1.2 million bases shown).
Human/Chimp Y chromosomes are
profoundly different.
Human chromosome Y is twice the size.
The gene counts are radically different.
The architectures are radically different.
Only 70% agreement in the DNA sequences
(where alignable).
There is no way to account for so
many differences via mutation
fixation, even within the evolutionary
time scale.
Another major finding:
The current human mutation
rate is huge—at least 100
new mutations, on average, in
each child born. This implies
the human race is young.
With the observed human mutation rate,
genetic fitness decreases rapidly.
Lifespans of Noah’s descendants
Genetic entropy
—fitness goes down, not up!
An important observation:
Initial created diversity
in Adam’s genome allows
for an incredible amount
of genetic diversity in the
human race today.
Designed Diversity
Q: How many chromosome sets in Eden?
A: Probably two sets in Adam and the
same two sets in Eve.
For example:
Chromosome 1a :
Chromosome 1b :
Designed Diversity
 There are roughly 10-15 million single-nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs) in humans.
Craig Venter, who was the first to sequence the
human genome, found that he has 4 million
Adam and Eve were easily sufficiently
heterozygous to account for all these SNPs. It
requires that at most one out of every 200 (15
million/3 billion) DNA letters need be different
on the two pairs of chromosomes.
Designed variation gives instant diversity!
Genetic evidence supporting
Genesis 1-11 as real history
1. mtDNA points to a recent ‘Mitochondrial Eve’.
2. Three main mtDNA lineages are consistent with all modern
humans being descendants of the wives of Ham, Shem, and
3. mtDNA lineages and the astonishing level of human ethnic and
languge diversity indicates the dispersion from Babel was a real
historical event.
4. Y-chromosome data points to a recent ‘Y-chromosomal Adam’.
5. That human/chimp genomes are so profoundly different negates
the idea of an evolutionary link to some apelike ancestor.
6. Measured human mutation rate points to a young human race.
7. Most variation in our nuclear DNA can be accounted for as
original created variation in Adam/Eve.
For more information visit the
websites of
Answers in Genesis
Creation Ministries International
Logos Research Associates