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Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called
Life requires about 25 chemical elements
1. Atomic structure determines the behavior of an element
2. Atoms combine by chemical bonding to form molecules
3. Weak chemical bonds play important roles in the chemistry of life
4. A molecule’s biological function is related to its shape
5. Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds
• Life can be
organized into a
hierarchy of
structural levels.
• At each successive
level additional
emergent properties
Fig. 2.1
1. Matter consists of chemical elements in
pure form and in combinations called
_______-anything that takes up space and has mass.
• _________ -a substance that cannot be broken
down to other substances by chemical reactions.
• -92 naturally-occurring elements.
• Each element has a unique symbol, usually from the
first one or two letters of the name, often from Latin or
• _________- two or more elements in a fixed ratio.
• Table salt (sodium chloride or NaCl) is a compound
with equal numbers of chlorine and sodium atoms.
• While pure sodium is a metal and chlorine is a gas,
their combination forms an edible compound, an
emergent property.
Fig. 2.2
2. Life requires about 25 chemical
• About 25 of the 92 natural
elements are known to be
essential for life.
• Four elements - carbon (C),
oxygen (O), hydrogen (H),
and nitrogen (N) - make up
___ of living matter.
• Most of the remaining ___ of
an organism’s weight consists
of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S),
calcium (Ca), and potassium
•Some trace elements, like iron
(Fe), are required by all organisms.
1. Atomic structure determines the
behavior of an element
• Each element consists of unique atoms.
• _____ -smallest unit of matter that still retains the
properties of an element.
• -composed of smaller parts, called subatomic particles.
• Two of these, _______ and ________, form a dense
core, the atomic nucleus, at the center of an atom.
• _________ form a cloud around the nucleus.
• Each __________ has one unit of negative charge.
• Each _________has one unit of positive charge.
• ___________are electrically neutral.
• The attractions between the positive charges in the nucleus
and the negative charges of the electrons keep the electrons
in the vicinity of the nucleus.
Fig. 2.5
• Neutron and proton mass- ___________ grams per particle.
• The mass of a neutron or a proton is 1 _______.
• The mass of an electron is about 1/200th that of a neutron or
• Therefore, we typically _______ the contribution of
electrons when determining the total mass of an atom.
• All atoms of a particular element have the same
number of protons in their nuclei.
• Each element has a unique number of protons, its
unique _________________.
• The atomic number is written as a subscript before the
symbol for the element (for example, 2He).
• Unless otherwise indicated, # protons = #
electrons , hence no ___________.
• Therefore, atomic number = # protons and # electrons
if it is a ____________ atom.
• ______________ = # of protons + # of neutrons
in a nucleus.
• Number of neutrons = mass number minus # of
protons (the atomic number)
• The mass number is written as a superscript before an
element’s symbol (for example, 4He).
• _______________ ( in daltons) = mass number.
• For example, 4He has a mass number of 4 and an
estimated atomic weight of 4 daltons.
• More precisely, its atomic weight is 4.003 daltons.
• ___________ -Two atoms of the same element that differ in
the number of ___________are called.
• In nature, an element occurs as a mixture of isotopes.
• Example- 99% of carbon atoms have 6 neutrons (12C).
• 1% have 7 neutrons (13C) , few have 8 neutrons (14C).
• Most isotopes are ________; they do not tend to loose particles.
• Both 12C and 13C are ________ isotopes.
• Some isotopes are _________- decay spontaneously, emitting
particles and energy.
• Example: 14C is an unstable or ______________________.
decays into a proton + electron.
• This converts 14C to 14N
• Radioactive isotopes have many applications in biological
• Radioactive decay rates can be used to date ________.
• Radioactive isotopes can be used to trace atoms in ______________.
Fig. 2.5
• _______________- different _________________ (states of potential energy)
that electrons of an atoms can have.
• The first shell, closest to the nucleus, has the _________ potential energy.
• Electrons in outer shells have _________ potential energy.
• Electrons move to a new level only if they absorb or release energy that
matches the _________________in potential energy between the two
Fig. 2.7
• ______________________ determines the chemical behavior of an atom
• The first 18 elements, including those most important in
biological processes, can be arranged in _____________
and __________.
• Elements in the same row use the same shells.
• Moving from left to right, each element has a sequential
addition of _________________________________.
Fig. 2.8
• First electron shell - only _
• The two electrons of Helium fill the
first shell.
• Second shell - up to _ electrons.
• Neon = 10 electrons
• Two in first shell and eight in the
• Third shell- up to 8 electrons
The outermost shell is the _____________ shell
• The electrons in the valance shell react with other atoms
• If valance shell is full- an ___________ atom – e.g. Argon
• If valance shell is not full - a ________ atom – e.g.Oxygen
• In reality, an electron occupies a more complex threedimensional space, an orbital.
• The first shell - single spherical orbital for its _____ of electrons.
• The second shell can pack pairs of electrons into a spherical
orbital and __________ p orbitals (dumbbell-shaped).
Fig. 2-9
• The ______________ of atoms is due to _________ electrons
• Electrons preferentially occupy separate orbitals within the
valence shell until forced to share orbitals.
• Example- The four valence electrons of carbon each
occupy separate orbitals, but the five valence
electrons of nitrogen are distributed into three
unshared orbitals and one shared orbital.
• When atoms interact to complete their valence
shells, it is the __________ electrons that are
2. Atoms combine by chemical bonding to form molecules
• Atoms with ____________ valence shells interact by either
___________ or ______________ valence electrons.
• The strongest chemical bonds are __________ bonds
and ________ bonds.
• _____________ bond- Two atoms sharing a pair of
____________ electrons.
• Each atom can count both electrons toward its goal of filling
the valence shell.
• Example- two hydrogen atoms can share the single
electrons that each contributes.
Fig. 2.12a
• ____________- Two or more atoms held together
by covalent bonds.
• ______________ –
• H-H is the structural formula for the covalent bond
between two hydrogen atoms.
• ____________________- indicates the number
and types of atoms present in a single molecule.
• H2 is the molecular formula for hydrogen gas.
Example of a molecule
• Oxygen needs to add _______________ to the 6
already present to complete its valence shell.
• Two oxygen atoms can form a molecule by sharing
two pairs of valence electrons.
• These atoms have formed a double covalent bond.
Molecular formula
Structural formula
Fig. 2.12b
Three ways to describe:
• Every atom has a characteristic total number of
covalent bonds that it can form - an atom’s
• The valence of hydrogen is 1.
• Oxygen is __.
• Nitrogen is __.
• Carbon is __.
• Phosphorus should have a valence of __, based on its
three unpaired electrons, but in biological molecules it
generally has a valence of __, forming three single
covalent bonds and one double bond.
• Covalent bonds can
form between atoms of
the same element or
atoms of different
• While both types are
molecules, the latter are
also _____________.
Fig. 2.11c
• Example- Water, (H2O) is
a compound
• ___________ the
valences of both
• Another exampleMethane, CH4, satisfies
the valences of both C
and H.
Fig. 2.11d
• The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a
covalent bond is called its _______________.
• Strongly electronegative atoms attempt to pull the shared
electrons toward themselves.
• If electrons in a covalent bond are shared equally,
then this is a _______________________.
• A covalent bond between two atoms of the same element
is always______________.
• A covalent bond between atoms that have similar
electronegativities is also __________.
• Because carbon and hydrogen do not differ greatly in
electronegativities, the bonds of CH4 are nonpolar.
• If the electrons in a covalent bond are not shared
equally by the two atoms, then this is a
• The bonds between oxygen and hydrogen in water are
polar covalent because oxygen has a much higher
____________________ than does hydrogen.
• Compounds with a polar
covalent bond have:
• partial ___________ regions
(near strongly
electronegative atom)
• Partial ____________ charge (near
weakly electronegative
Fig. 2.12
• ___________ –between two atoms are so unequal
in their attraction for valence electrons that one
atom strips an electron completely from the other.
• Example- sodium (one valence electron) in its third
shell transfers this electron to chlorine with 7 valence
electrons in its third shell.
• Now, sodium has a full valence shell (the second) and
chlorine has a full valence shell (the third).
These are now
called _____
Na+ is a _______
Cl- is an ______
Fig. 2.13
Cations and anions are attracted - form ___________
• Ionic compounds can have ratios of elements
different from _____.
• Example- magnesium chloride (MgCl2) has 2 chloride
atoms per magnesium atom.
• Magnesium needs to _____ 2 electrons to drop to a
full outer shell, each chlorine needs to _____ 1.
• Entire molecules that have full electrical
charges are also called ions.
• In the salt ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), the anion is Cland the cation is NH4 +.
• The strength of ionic bonds depends on
3. Weak chemical bonds play important
roles in the chemistry of life
• Within a cell, weak, brief bonds between molecules
are important to a variety of processes.
• Example- signal molecules in neuronal signaling
• Weak interactions include ____________ (weak in
water), __________________, and
• __________________ - a hydrogen atom that is already
covalently bonded to a strongly electronegative atom is attracted
to another strongly electronegative atom.
• Example- ammonia molecules and water molecules link
together with weak hydrogen bonds.
• Hydrogen atoms - partial _______________ charges
• Nitrogen atom - partial _________________ charge.
• Thus- ammonia forms hydrogen bonds with water
Fig. 2.15
• Molecules or atoms in close proximity can be
attracted by these fleeting charge differences,
creating ________________________.
• While individual bonds (ionic, hydrogen, van der
Waals) are weak, collectively they have strength.
Review__________– atoms share electrons
________- one atom strips electrons from other to produce ions
_________ - weak, between partial opposite charges
_______________weak, fleeting interactions
4. Three-dimensional shape is important for a
molecules function.
• Molecules with similar shapes can interact in similar
• For example, ____________________________ are
similar enough in shape that they can bind to the same
receptors as natural signal molecules, called endorphins.
• Binding to
the receptors
and relieves
Fig. 2.17
5. Chemical reactions make and break
chemical bonds
• In _______________________ chemical bonds
are broken and reformed, leading to new
arrangements of atoms.
• The starting molecules in the process are called
_____________ and the end molecules are called
• In a chemical reaction, all of the atoms in the
reactants must be accounted for in the products.
• The reactions must be “balanced”.
• Example: the covalent bonds of H2 and O2 to form
• In this reaction, ____ molecules of H2 combine with
____ molecule of O2 to form two molecules of H2O.
• Another example of a chemical reaction. ______________________
• Green plants combine carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air
and water (H2O) from the soil to create sugar molecules
and molecular oxygen (O2), a byproduct.
• This chemical reaction is powered by _________.
• Humans and other animals depend on photosynthesis
for food and oxygen.
• The overall process of photosynthesis is
• _______________________________
• This process occurs in a sequence of individual
chemical reactions.