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I. The Chemistry of matter
A. All matter in the universe is composed of atoms.
B. Parts of an atom
1. Electron Shell – The outer part of an atom. This is where
the electrons are found.
a) Electrons – Negatively charged particles found in the
electron shell. Electrons orbit the nucleus.
2. Nucleus – The center of the atom. Composed of Protons
and Neutrons.
a) Proton – Positively charged particles.
b) Neutron – Neutral particles.
C. For the Elements, the number of electrons in an atom is
equal to the number of Protons. This is called the Atomic
Different Atoms have different numbers of Protons,
Neutrons and Electrons. These are called Elements.
D. Elements – Matter composed of the same type of atoms.
Example: Gold is an element; it is made of gold atoms.
There are 93 natural elements found on Earth.
E. Compounds – Matter composed of 2 or more elements
chemically combined. Example: H20 (water)
Compounds are held together by atomic bonds, there are
2 types:
Ionic Bond – A weak bond formed by two differently charged
Ions sticking together.
a) Ion – An atom which has gained or lost electrons.
Example: Salt (NaCl)
Sodium: Na (#11)
Chlorine: Cl (#17)
G. Covalent Bond – A very strong bond caused by the sharing of
electrons between atoms. This bond requires lots of energy to
make and to break.
Example: Water H2O
Hydrogen: H (#1)
Oxygen: O (#8)
Hydrogen: H (#1)