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Unit 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: What are the characteristics of life? What is the organization of life from smallest to largest? Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote? The Domains and Kingdoms? What major component unifies life? What is the scientific method? What are the steps? Chapter 13: Explain how mosquitoes become resistant to DDT and how bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. What is the difference between descent with modification and natural selection? What is the modern definition of evolution? What did Lamarck get wrong? Why are the Galapagos important to Darwin? What did he notice there? What is Charles Lyell’s influence? What are the five lines of evidence that support evolution? Be able to explain each one. What is modern synthesis? What role does genetics play in evolution? What are the three main causes of evolutionary change? The bottleneck and founder effects are examples of what? What are the three general outcomes of natural selection and what is the difference between them? Define Darwinian fitness. Chapter 14: What are mass extinctions and what role do they play in evolution? What is speciation? (branching vs. non-brancing) What are the prezygotic barriers with examples? What are the postzygotic barriers with examples? Allopatric vs. Sympatric speciation. Two tempo models of speciation. How are bird wings thought to be exaptations? How can homeotic genes play a major role in evolution? What are the four eras of geologic time and what major events happened in each? Important happenings 250, 180, and 65 million years ago. What is taxonomy and systematics? What is the classification hierarchy from largest to smallest? How do we properly name organisms? Homologous vs. Analogous structures and examples? What is a clade?