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What is a Rock?
Naturally occurring solid that is made up
of minerals or mineral like matter.
What is the difference
between a rock and a
 Rocks
are made up of ONE or MORE
What is a Rock?
 Rocks
are divided into 3 groups based
on how they were formed:
Once a rock is formed, does it
stay the same rock forever?
 NO!
Formed from the cooling of either magma
or lava
The most abundant type of rock
Formed from sediments (rock
fragments, mineral grains, animal
& plant remains) that are
pressed or cemented togther
 Sedimentary
rocks are fossil-carrying
 The
heavy sediments press down on the
layers beneath (compaction)
 Dissolved
minerals flow between the
particles and cement them together
Water or wind breaks down and deposits
sediment (erosion & deposition)
 Rocks
that have changed due to intense
temperature and pressure
 Igneous, sedimentary and other
metamorphic rocks can change to
become metamorphic rocks
What occurs in the Earth to
change these rocks?
 Pressure
from overlying rock layers
 High heat, but not enough to melt the rock
 Rocks may be flattened or bent or atoms may
be exchanged to form new minerals.
Rock Cycle Important
Deposition: settling of things on the bottom
Metamorphism: altering something in
composition, texture, or structure
Cementation: hardening, binding substances
Solidification: process of something becoming a
Rock and Mineral Classification:
Texture, Luster, Hardness
Texture (of rock): Size and shape of mineral
Luster (of minerals): How light reflects:
ex) dull, waxy, greasy, pearly, silky,
glassy, diamond-like, metallic
Other: Colors, hardness, transparency etc.