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Study Guide
Terms to know:
Strata- layers of sediment
Stratification- the process of sedimentary rocks arranged in layers
Foliated- texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or
Extrusive- a type of igneous rock that forms as a result of volcanic activity, at or near the surface,
small or no crystals present
Nonfoliated- texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are NOT arranged in planes
or bands
Intrusive- a type of igneous rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath
the surface, very large crystals
Chemical Sedimentary Rock- formed from solutions of dissolved minerals, crystals are usually
left behind when the liquid evaporates
Organic Sedimentary Rock- formed from remains of once living organisms (coral, coral reefs,
Clastic Sedimentary Rock- fragments of rocks cemented together
Lesson Content:
-Sedimentary Rocks (Sandstone is an example)
-form without heat and pressure, usually near the surface
- has layers called strata formed through the process of stratification
- fossils can be found in these rocks
- 3 types of sedimentary rocks (clastic, chemical, organic)
- 5 steps to form sedimentary rocks (Weathering, erosion, deposition,
compaction/cementation, sedimentary rock)
-Metamorphic Rocks (Marble is an example)
-rocks changed from heat and pressure, known as metamorphism
- Metamorphic rock has two textures (Foliated and Nonfoliated)
- these rocks DO NOT melt
-Igneous Rocks (Granite is an example)
-formed from cooling magma that solidifies
- if cools quickly (texture is fine-grained), if cools slowly (texture is coarse grained)
- Two types of textures (Extrusive and Intrusive)
-May contain crystals
***Rock Identification lab will be a part of this summative (5 rocks). Know the characteristics of
each type of rock. You will be given 5 rocks to look at with a hand lens. Use your knowledge of
the characteristics to identify if it is sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rock.