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Homework: Chapter 22 The Lymphatic System and Immunity Define the following terms 1. Organism 2. Pathogen 3. Microbe (microorganism) 4. Parasite 5. bacteria 6. virus 7. fungi 8. infection 9. resistance 10. susceptibility 11. nonspecific resistance 12. specific resistance 13. immunity 14. cytolysis 15. immune system Multiple Choice: Read each question and the answers carefully. Choose the best answer. 1. The body’s nonspecific defenses include all of the following, except a. the skin. b. complement. c. interferon. d. inflammation. e. antibodies. 2. An inflammatory response is triggered when a. red blood cells release pyrogens. b. T cells release interferon. c. mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin. d. neutrophils phagocytize bacteria. e. blood flow to an area increases. 3. The release of interleukin-1 by active macrophages would a. cause inflammation. b. produce a fever. c. activate complement. d. result in opsonization of pathogens. e. result in B-cell producing antibodies. 4. Characteristics of specific defenses include a. versatility. b. tolerance. c. memory. d. specificity. e. all of the above 5. Defense of the body against a particular bacteria or virus is provided by a. nonspecific immunity. b. specific immunity. c. immunological surveillance. d. skin. e. fever. 6. The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the a. T cells. b. B cells. c. NK cells. d. phagocytes. e. plasma cells. 7. All of the various macrophages are derived from a. lymphocytes. b. monocytes. c. neutrophils. d. eosinophils. e. basophils. 8. The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following, except a. destruction of target cell membranes. b. stimulation of inflammation. c. deactivation of the immune response. d. opsonization. e. chemotaxis. 9. Lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or body cells infected with viruses are _____ cells. a. B b. plasma c. helper T d. cytotoxic T e. suppressor T 10. Cells that help regulate the immune response are _____ cells. a. B b. plasma c. helper T d. cytotoxic T e. NK 11. When an antigen is bound to a Class I HLA molecule, it can stimulate a _____ cell. a. B b. plasma c. helper T d. cytotoxic T e. NK 12. When an antigen is bound to a Class II HLA molecule, it can stimulate a _____ cell. a. plasma b. helper T c. NK d. suppressor T e. cytotoxic T 13. T cells and B cells can be activated only by a. pathogens. b. interleukins, interferons, and colony-stimulating factors. c. cells infected with viruses, bacteria, or cancer cells. d. exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a cell membrane. e. disease-causing agents. 14. Class II MHC proteins appear in the cell membrane only when a. the plasma cells are releasing antibodies. b. the cell is processing antigens. c. cytotoxic T cells are inhibited. d. NK cells are activated. e. none of the above 15. Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph glands in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that a. the focus of the infection is the lymph glands. b. lymph is not flowing through these lymph glands. c. the affected lymph glands contain an increased number of lymphocytes. d. the lymph gland is actively producing phagocytes. e. the lymph gland has increased its secretion of thymosin 16. A sample of John’s blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John a. has hypotension. b. is producing T lymphocytes. c. has a sore throat. d. is running a fever. e. has swollen lymph nodes. Short Answer/Essay: 1. How does elimination of the antigen stop the production of antibodies? 2. In patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), helper T cells are destroyed by a viral infection. The patients can die of pneumonia caused by an intracellular fungus (pneumocystis carinii) or from Kaposi’s sarcoma, which consists of tumorous growths in the skin and lymph nodes. Explain what is happening. 3. Ivy Hurtt developed a poison ivy rash after a camping trip. Her doctor prescribed a cortisone ointment to relieve the inflammation. A few weeks later Ivy scraped her elbow, which became inflamed. Because she had some of the cortisone ointment left over, she applied it to the scrape. Explain why the ointment was or was not a good idea for the poison ivy and for the scrape.