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Transcript
Virtue Ethics
Virtue Ethics
Which Character Traits are Good?
Dr. Clea F. Rees
[email protected]
Centre for Lifelong Learning
Cardiff University
Spring 2011
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Moral
Outline
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Outline
Organisational
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
The Bishop
Jean Valjean
The sister, the servant, the gendarmes & more
Individual morality & social institutions
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
Selected queries
Social perceptions of greed
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Notes
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
ible
iss
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Organisational
Un
et
V i ce
Organisational
I
please hand in as applicable:
I
I
available to collect:
I
I
one copy of response to prompt 6
responses to prompt 5
questions, comments & concerns
b
Per
mi
Et
h
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
The Bishop
Virtue
ble
ss i
Moral
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
The Bishop
I
the Bishop
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
The Bishop
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
The Bishop
I
the Bishop
I
action has no moral worth according to
Kant
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
The Bishop
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
The Bishop
I
the Bishop
I
I
action has no moral worth according to
Kant
action does have moral worth according
to Foot & partly BECAUSE he gives no
thought to “duty”
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Jean Valjean
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Jean Valjean
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
I
action is wrong according to Kant
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Jean Valjean
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
I
action is wrong according to Kant
I
might worry that Jean’s experiences in
prison have undermined his ability to
be autonomous (Kant can’t allow for
this)
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Jean Valjean
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
I
action is wrong according to Kant
I
I
might worry that Jean’s experiences in
prison have undermined his ability to
be autonomous (Kant can’t allow for
this)
action is wrong according to Foot
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Jean Valjean
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
I
action is wrong according to Kant
I
I
might worry that Jean’s experiences in
prison have undermined his ability to
be autonomous (Kant can’t allow for
this)
action is wrong according to Foot
I
possibility of character damage
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Jean Valjean
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
I
action is wrong according to Kant
I
I
might worry that Jean’s experiences in
prison have undermined his ability to
be autonomous (Kant can’t allow for
this)
action is wrong according to Foot
I
I
possibility of character damage
virtues/vices matter of degree
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Jean Valjean
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
I
action is wrong according to Kant
I
I
might worry that Jean’s experiences in
prison have undermined his ability to
be autonomous (Kant can’t allow for
this)
action is wrong according to Foot
I
I
I
possibility of character damage
virtues/vices matter of degree
rational does not necessarily mean
able to be virtuous
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Jean Valjean
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Jean Valjean
I
Jean Valjean
I
action is wrong according to Kant
I
I
action is wrong according to Foot
I
I
I
I
might worry that Jean’s experiences in
prison have undermined his ability to
be autonomous (Kant can’t allow for
this)
possibility of character damage
virtues/vices matter of degree
rational does not necessarily mean
able to be virtuous
does Foot’s picture better
capture/explain moral development/our
moral experience than Kant’s?
b
Per
mi
Et
h
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
The sister, the servant, the gendarmes & more
Virtue
ble
ss i
Moral
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
The sister, the servant, the gendarmes & more
I
the Bishop’s sister
b
Per
mi
Et
h
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
The sister, the servant, the gendarmes & more
Virtue
ble
ss i
Moral
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
The sister, the servant, the gendarmes & more
I
the Bishop’s sister
I
the Bishop’s servant
b
Per
mi
Et
h
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
The sister, the servant, the gendarmes & more
Virtue
ble
ss i
Moral
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
The sister, the servant, the gendarmes & more
I
the Bishop’s sister
I
the Bishop’s servant
I
other people in the town, the
gendarmes etc.
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Individual morality & social institutions
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Individual morality & social institutions
I
According to Kant, one’s ability to be a good person depends
only on rationality.
b
Per
mi
Et
h
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Individual morality & social institutions
Virtue
ble
ss i
Moral
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Individual morality & social institutions
According to Kant, one’s ability to be a good person depends
only on rationality.
So one’s ability to be a good person depends only on oneself.
I
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Individual morality & social institutions
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Individual morality & social institutions
According to Kant, one’s ability to be a good person depends
only on rationality.
So one’s ability to be a good person depends only on oneself.
I
I
is this a good picture?
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Individual morality & social institutions
l
ica
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Victor Hugo, “The Bishop and the Candlesticks”
Individual morality & social institutions
According to Kant, one’s ability to be a good person depends
only on rationality.
So one’s ability to be a good person depends only on oneself.
I
I
I
is this a good picture?
don’t social institutions affect an individual’s ability to be
good/virtuous?
b
Per
mi
Et
h
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Pahom
Virtue
ble
ss i
Moral
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
Pahom
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Un
et
V i ce
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
I
avarice/greed
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
Pahom
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Un
et
V i ce
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
I
avarice/greed
I
bad for person b/c never
satisfied with what she has
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
Pahom
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Un
et
V i ce
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
I
avarice/greed
I
I
bad for person b/c never
satisfied with what she has
bad for others (confrontational,
person will tend to grab more
than fair-share whenever
possible)
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
Pahom
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Un
et
V i ce
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
I
avarice/greed
I
I
I
bad for person b/c never
satisfied with what she has
bad for others (confrontational,
person will tend to grab more
than fair-share whenever
possible)
is everyone greedy?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
Pahom
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Un
et
V i ce
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
I
avarice/greed
I
I
I
I
bad for person b/c never
satisfied with what she has
bad for others (confrontational,
person will tend to grab more
than fair-share whenever
possible)
is everyone greedy?
temperance as correcting for
excess, where excess is greed
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
Pahom
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Un
et
V i ce
Leo Tolstoy, “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”
Pahom
I
avarice/greed
I
I
I
bad for person b/c never
satisfied with what she has
bad for others (confrontational,
person will tend to grab more
than fair-share whenever
possible)
is everyone greedy?
I
temperance as correcting for
excess, where excess is greed
I
maybe some people have
temperance; some are greedy;
some are in between
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Social perceptions of greed
l
ica
Selected queries
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Selected queries
Social perceptions of greed
I
In our society, is greed
considered a virtue or a vice?
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
l
ica
Selected queries
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
l
ica
Selected queries
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
Is character or action more important in
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
Is character or action more important in
I
ethical theory?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
Is character or action more important in
I
I
ethical theory?
moral life?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
Is character or action more important in
I
I
I
ethical theory?
moral life?
Is Foot’s conception of virtue/vice correct?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
Is character or action more important in
I
I
I
I
ethical theory?
moral life?
Is Foot’s conception of virtue/vice correct?
What are the virtues? What are the vices?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
Is character or action more important in
I
I
I
I
ethical theory?
moral life?
Is Foot’s conception of virtue/vice correct?
What are the virtues? What are the vices?
I
Is the answer the same for everyone?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
I
Is it helpful to think in terms of virtue/vice?
Is character or action more important in
I
I
I
I
ethical theory?
moral life?
Is Foot’s conception of virtue/vice correct?
What are the virtues? What are the vices?
I
I
Is the answer the same for everyone?
In all times and places?
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
al
hic
Moral
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
l
ica
Selected queries
ible
iss
Virtue Ethics
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
What of the “Seven Deadly Sins”?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
What of the “Seven Deadly Sins”?
I
Are they all vices?
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
al
hic
Im
per
m
Un
et
V i ce
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
I
What of the “Seven Deadly Sins”?
I
I
Are they all vices?
Are any really virtues?
The Sunday Times, 11/01/2004, 1.11
b
Virtue
Virtue Ethics
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
ible
iss
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Im
per
m
al
hic
Moral
Immoral
l
ica
Selected queries
Un
et
V i ce
Selected queries
Conceptions of virtue/vice
Traditional virtues:
Traditional vices:
I
courage
virtue
I
anger
vice
I
justice
virtue
I
covetousness
vice
I
temperance
virtue
I
envy
neither
I
wisdom
neither
I
gluttony
neither
I
charity
virtue
I
lust
neither
I
faith
neither
I
pride
neither
I
hope
neither
I
sloth
neither
virtue: concentration, humanity?,
kindness, considerateness, love?
vice: hate?, love?
b
Virtue
ble
ss i
Per
mi
Et
h
Im
per
m
Immoral
ible
iss
al
hic
Moral
Notes
l
ica
Virtue Ethics
Un
et
V i ce
Notes
b