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Transcript
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Pro Prose II:
Coordinating
and
Subordinating
Dave Moeller
Pro Prose II—an Overview
NOTE A: All exercises, practice tests, and tests in this book are sequential and are intended to be
used in the order they appear.
NOTE B: Suggestion for those who will be using the hard copy as opposed to the electronic
version: Make a single copy of each page in this book. These will be your masters. Prepare a
series of file folders for each exercise, practice test, and test. Once you have your masters and
your file folders, the book can be tucked away in a bookcase somewhere.
(Sort of a) Table of Contents
To the Teacher
Coordinating and Subordinating Summary Sheet
COMPOUND SENTENCES
PP #1: labeling sentence parts
PP #2: same subject sentences
PP #3: distinguishing between compound sentences and compound verbs
PP #4: compounding with or, for, yet, and so
PP #5: compounding with nor
PP #6: compound sentence mastery assignment
Compound Sentence Practice Test/Study Sheet
Compound Sentence Test
COMPLEX SENTENCES
PP #7: moving the subordinate clause
PP #8: using sentence combining to create complex sentences
PP #9&10: writing complex sentences according to formulas
PP#11: changing from compound to complex, and from complex to compound
Complex Sentence Practice Test/Study Sheet
Complex Sentence Test
Bonus Assignment: Compound-Complex Sentences
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS, SEMICOLONS, COLONS, AND SOME EXCEPTIONS
PP #12&13: conjunctive adverbs
PP #14: semicolons
PP #15: colons
PP #16: semicolons and colons
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #17: compound sentences: three exceptions
PP #18: complex sentences: two exceptions
PP #19: conjunctive adverbs: three exceptions
PP #20: mastery assignment
Bonus Assignment: Coordinating and Subordinating with Cumulative Sentences (includes
first a one-page review sheet, then the assignment itself)
Final Test: Practice Test/Study Sheet
Final Test
Answers and Sample Answers
To the Teacher
The series of exercises contained in this booklet are generative; that is, they require the student to
compose sentences rather than just recognize grammatical structures in sentences composed by
someone else. It takes a little more time for a teacher to read the work of students who are
writing sentences instead of underlining or filling in blanks; nevertheless, when it comes to
teaching writing, generative exercises are more valuable than all other types of exercises.
Some of the exercises contained here in Pro Prose II are based on the assumption that students
have completed Pro Prose I. If your students have not completed Pro Prose I, it may take them a
little longer to get used to the formula method of sentence construction.
In Pro Prose I the cultural literacy references were literary, but here in Pro Prose II the reference
base has been broadened to include most all of The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. You might
consider combining the lessons in sentence construction with the lessons in cultural literacy.
Getting your own copy of The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy is the best way to get help with
those references with which you are unfamiliar.
Throughout the exercises your students will encounter such sentences as “The examples are
taken from American Politics.” All such sentences are references to The Dictionary of Cultural
Literacy and the particular chapter of cultural literacy that the exercise is based on.
These exercises are designed to be used sequentially. Picking and choosing assignments, using
them out of order, or allowing long periods of time to intervene between assignments will
diminish the effectiveness of these materials. The two bonus assignments are to be used at your
own discretion. One of the bonus assignments—Coordinating and Subordinating with
Cumulative Sentences—is a review of Pro Prose I. To complete this exercise students will need
two parts: the review sheet and the assignment.
You’ll find the formula SV+ repeated consistently throughout these exercises. SV+ stands for a
subject, a verb, plus some other words. Whether those other words are a direct object or a
complement or whatever else is not really important. Dwelling on this latter portion of the
sentence only detracts from concentrating on the more important parts of sentence construction.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
But to return to the SV+. Whenever you see the formula SV+, translate it as simple sentence. The
simpler the better. As much as possible, STUDENTS SHOULD USE SIMPLE SUBJECTS
AND ACTIVE, PAST TENSE VERBS. Ultimately, any student who masters these exercises
will be writing sentences at a high level of complexity; but the complexity results not from
meddling with the SV core, but by the means of coordination and subordination.
As you and your students work through these exercises, the end result must be kept in mind: to
improve the writing ability of your students; therefore, I think it best to give help whenever it is
asked for. If allowing students to work together results in more students learning to coordinate
and subordinate, then working together shouldn’t be a problem either. And as you grade these
exercises, try to allow for varying degrees of partial credit. In some exercises you will encounter
right vs. wrong answers. But more frequently you will encounter a continuum of wrong, poor,
fair, good, great. And, if possible, allow time for discussion of why selected student responses
fall where they do on the continuum.
Just before PP#1 you will find the Coordinating and Subordinating Summary Sheet. Each
student should be given one copy of this summary sheet to be kept throughout the duration of
Pro Prose II. This sheet can be referred to when extra help is needed; with some exercises the
summary sheet is essential.
The exercises are designed to be done on separate paper. Keep a class set of each exercise in file
folders.
Exercises 6, 10, 18, 20, and both bonus assignments ask that the student sentences be written on
a single topic. A likely topic would be whatever students happen to be reading in your classroom.
Assigning topics helps avoid sentences of the A dog walked down the street variety. For those
students who say they need the freedom, you might label the topic optional. Or both. Make
several copies of the original before filling in a topic and running off copies; this will allow you
to change the topic when you so desire. Or you might simply have your students fill in the topic
blank with topics of their own choice.
Because different teachers have different grading systems, each test contains blanks on which the
number of points possible for that section is to be filled in. Once again, you can make several
copies of the original, thus allowing you to change the point value whenever you so desire; or
you can have students themselves fill in the blanks with the number of points possible.
Good luck.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Coordinating and Subordinating Summary Sheet
key to interpreting the formulas
SV+
S
V
C
SC
CA
;
:
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
subject verb (plus other words)
subject
verb
conjunction
subordinate clause
conjunctive adverb
semicolon
colon
Coordinating is the putting together of two independent clauses (two sentences that could each
stand alone). Subordinating is putting an independent clause together with a subordinate clause
(a sentence that could not stand alone).
ways to coordinate
SV+,CSV+
SV+;CA,SV+
SV+;SV+
SV+;SV+
(Sentence, conjunction sentence.)
(Sentence; conjunctive adverb, sentence.)
(Sentence; sentence.)
(Sentence: sentence.)
ways to subordinate
SC,SV+ (Subordinate clause, sentence.)
SV+SC (Sentence subordinate clause.)
compound sentence (SV+,CSV+)
The rule: Two sentences can be joined by a conjunction.
A comma goes in front of the conjunction.
The seven conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
FANBOYS can be used to help remember the seven conjunctions.
The exceptions to the rule:
(SV+CSV+) If both sentences in the compound sentence are short and simple, you may
drop the comma before the conjunction.
(SV+;CSV+) If one (or both) of the sentences in the compound sentence has a comma
already in it, use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction.
(SV+. CSV+) A compound sentence can be written as two separate sentences. The
conjunction can be used as the first word of the second sentence.
over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Coordinating and Subordinating Summary Sheet—page 2
compounding with conjunctive adverbs (SV+;CA,SV+)
The rule: Two sentences can be joined by a conjunctive adverb.
A semicolon is placed after the first sentence, followed by a conjunctive adverb, followed
by a comma, followed by a second sentence.
Here are some conjunctive adverbs: besides, consequently, finally, furthermore, however,
in fact, later, moreover, nevertheless, next, now, otherwise, still, then, therefore.
The exceptions to the rule:
A sentence joined by a conjunctive adverb can be rewritten as two sentences. The
conjunctive adverb gets capitalized and becomes the first word of the second sentence.
If the conjunctive adverb is short or if you simply don’t hear a pause after the conjunctive
adverb, you may drop the comma.
The conjunctive adverb may be moved to the middle of the second sentence. This is
usually done with however.
the semicolon and the colon (SV+;SV+) or (SV+:SV+)
The rule: Two sentences can be joined with either a semicolon or a colon.
A semicolon is used to join two closely related sentences that are roughly equal in
importance.
A colon is used to join two sentences when the second sentence is a specific example of
why the first sentence is true.
complex sentence (SV+SV) or (SC,SV+)
The rule: Two sentences can be joined by a subordinating conjunction.
A complex sentence consists of two parts: the independent clause and the subordinate
clause.
The independent clause is the same as a sentence; it can stand alone.
The subordinate clause consists of a subordinating conjunction placed in front of a
sentence.
Commonly used subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as long as, because,
before, if, since, so that, though, till, unless, until, when, where, while.
The complex sentence can be written in two different patterns: SV+SC (a sentence
followed by a subordinate clause) or SC,SV+ (a subordinate clause in front of a
sentence).
The exceptions to the rule:
Either for added emphasis or simply because you hear a pause, a comma may be place in
an SV+SC sentence; thus, SV+,SC.
Any number of subordinate clauses can be strung together; two such examples would be
SC,SC,SC,SV+ or SV+SC,SC,SC.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP#1—Compound Sentences
A compound sentence is two sentences joined together by a conjunction. (The
official term is coordinating conjunction, but we’ll drop the coordinating part.)
There are seven conjunctions: and, but, or, so, for, yet, nor. Here’s the formula:
SV+,CSV+.
S
V+
,
C
=
=
=
=
subject
verb plus other words
comma
conjunction
Many textbooks define a compound sentence as two independent clauses joined
together by a conjunction. But since an independent clause and a sentence are
really the same thing, we won’t bother with the technical terminology. And since
your simple, standard, everyday American sentence is usually a subject and a verb
and some words added after the verb, we’ll let the formula SV+ stand for a
sentence. In other words, each of these things is equal:
independent clause/comma/conjunction/independent clause =
sentence/comma/conjunction/independent clause =
subject/verb plus other words/comma/conjunction/subject/verb plus other
words =
SV+,CSV+
ASSIGNMENT: Copy each of the six sentences below. Skip every other line on
your paper. Above each sentence, label each part of the SV+,CSV+ formula. The
sentences are taken from Literature in English.
S
V+
,
C
S
V+
EXAMPLE: Jack fell down , and Jill came tumbling after.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The man sold his watch, and the woman cut off her hair.
Goldilocks tasted the porridge, but it was too hot.
Hamlet must kill Claudius, or his father will not be avenged.
Hester was accused of adultery, so she sewed a scarlet “A” on her dress.
Huck Finn decided to run away, for his father had tried to kill him.
It was the best of times, yet it was the worst of times.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP#2— Compound Sentences
EXAMPLE A: Cortez sailed to the New World, and he slaughtered the Aztecs.
EXAMPLE B: Cortez sailed to the New World, and Montezuma greeted him when he got
there.
When composing a compound sentence, you have a choice between a same-subject and a
different-subject sentence. Example A is a same-subject sentence: Cortez, the subject of the first
sentence, and he, the subject of the second sentence, refer to the same person. (In most samesubject sentences, the subject of the second sentence will be a pronoun that substitutes for the
subject of the first sentence. The pronoun will probably be he, she, it, or they.) Example B is a
different-subject sentence. Cortez, the subject of the first sentence, and Montezuma, the subject
of the second sentence, are two different people.
ASSIGNMENT: Write five same-subject sentences. Copy the sentence you are given; then add
a comma, the conjunction and, and a second sentence. The subject of the second sentence (the
word after and) will be a pronoun referring back to the subject of the first sentence. The
sentences are taken from World History to 1550.
EXAMPLE:
Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean. becomes>
Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean, and he claimed it for Spain.
NOTE: THIS APPLIES TO ALL EXERCISES: IF YOU CAN MAKE YOUR
SENTENCES FACTUAL OR HISTORICALLY ACCURATE, GREAT; IF NOT, JUST
MAKE SOMETHING UP.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Anne Boleyn was convicted by Henry VIII of adultery.
Caligula appointed his horse to the senate.
Cleopatra grieved at the news of Mark Antony’s death.
Mount Vesuvius erupted.
Copernicus argued that the earth moved around the sun.
ASSIGNMENT: Write five different-subject sentences. As you did in #1-5, copy the sentence
you are given and add a comma. Then, instead of adding the conjunction and, add but. Create
your second sentence by using the subject in parentheses.
6. Columbus landed in the New World in 1492. (Leif Ericson)
7. The English threatened to take over France. (Joan of Arc)
8. The Fountain of Youth was supposedly somewhere in Florida. (Ponce de Leon)
9. Ptolemy declared that the heavenly bodies all revolved around the earth. (Copernicus)
10. The Trojans felt safe inside the mighty walls of Troy. (the Greeks)
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP#3— Compound Sentences
EXAMPLE A: Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto, and he became known
as the founder of communism.
EXAMPLE B: Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto and became known as
the founder of communism.
Do you see the difference between example A and example B? Of course you do.
In example B, the comma and the he are missing. Example A is a compound
sentence; example B contains a compound verb, but it’s not a compound sentence.
Let’s reduce examples A and B to their most basic forms:
EXAMPLE A: Karl Marx wrote, and he became. (SV,andSV)
EXAMPLE B: Karl Marx wrote and became. (SVandV).
You see that example A has two complete subject/verb (SV) sets. Example B is
one subject with two verbs. The point is this:
IF YOU HAVE A TRUE COMPOUND SENTENCE, PUT A COMMA
BEFORE THE CONJUNCTION; IF WHAT YOU HAVE IS ANYTHING
LESS THAN A COMPLETE COMPOUND SENTENCE, LEAVE THE
COMMA OUT.
ASSIGNMENT: The sentences are taken from World History since 1550.
(#1-4) Change each of the compound verbs to compound sentences by adding a
comma and a pronoun to serve as the second subject.
EXAMPLE
Prince Albert got in the can but couldn’t get out. becomes>
Prince Albert got in the can, but he couldn’t get out.
over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over--over
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #3—page 2
1. Leonid Brezhnev seized leadership of the Soviet party in 1964 and invaded
Czechoslovakia in 1968.
2. Fidel Castro helped lead a communist revolution and became the leader of
Cuba.
3. Winston Churchill flashed the V for Victory sign and said, “I have nothing to
offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat.”
4. Captain James Cook established the first European colony in Australia and was
the first European to visit Hawaii.
(#5-8) Change each of the compound sentences to compound verbs by removing
the subject of the second sentence and the comma.
EXAMPLE
Khrushchev placed missiles in Cuba in 1962, but he removed them under
pressure from John F. Kennedy. becomes>
Khrushchev placed missiles in Cuba in 1962 but removed them under
pressure from John F. Kennedy.
5. Henry Stanley found the long-missing explorer, and he said, “Dr. Livingstone, I
presume?”
6. Adolf Eichmann escaped capture at the close of WWII, but he was hanged as a
war criminal fifteen years later in Israel.
7. Anne Frank was found by Nazis, and she was killed in a concentration camp in
1944.
8. Gandhi taught India the methods of passive resistance, and he helped his people
gain independence from the British.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP#4— Compound Sentences
Before we go on, a little review. Read each of the following questions and think about them. If
you decide that the answer to the question is yes, nod your head up and down vigorously. If you
decide that the answer is no, seek help before continuing.
Can you define what a compound sentence is?
Do you understand the formula SV+,CSV+?
Do you understand the difference between a same-subject and a different-subject
compound sentence?
Do you understand the difference between a compound sentence and a compound verb?
OK. You can stop nodding. Here’s another question: Can you name the seven conjunctions?
Here’s a mnemonic device: FANBOYS.
For And Nor But Or Yet So
So far all of your compound sentences have used either and or but as the conjunction. Here in
PP#4 we’ll use or, for, yet, and so. Nor is used a little differently than the other six conjunctions,
so we’ll save nor for PP#5.
____________________________________________________________________________
Or usually expresses a degree of uncertainty; either the first sentence will happen or the second
sentence will happen, but not both. As a result of the uncertainty, or is rarely used with simple
verbs; instead, modals like might and will are added to the verbs.
ASSIGNMENT: (#1-4) Use the sentence you are given to create a compound sentence by
adding a comma, or, and a second sentence. The sentences are taken from
World History since 1550.
EXAMPLE:
King George III had better lighten up on the colonists. becomes >
King George III had better lighten up on the colonists, or they will revolt.
1. The Gestapo might just ask you some questions.
2. The German soldiers might think they look pretty good while they goosestep.
3. Mikhail Gorbachev will be remembered as the man who introduced capitalism into the
Soviet Union.
4. A Japanese kamikaze was a brave fighter pilot.
____________________________________________________________________________
For is similar to because. The use of for indicates that the second sentence is the cause of the first
sentence. And don’t confuse for the conjunction with for the preposition. In the sentence Gilligan called
for the Skipper, for is not a conjunction.
over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #4—page 2
ASSIGNMENT:
(#5-8) Use the sentence you are given to create a compound sentence by adding a
comma, for, and a second sentence.
EXAMPLE: The people whispered about Napoleon, for he always had his hand in his shirt.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Emperor Hirohito decided to surrender.
Thousands of people flocked to the Klondike in the 1890’s.
Louis XIV was known as the Sun King.
The United States decided to enter WWI.
____________________________________________________________________________
The conjunction yet means something like You would expect one thing to happen, but something
completely different happens.
ASSIGNMENT:
(#9-12) Use the sentence you are given to create a compound sentence by adding a
comma, yet, and a second sentence.
EXAMPLE: Archduke Ferdinand was not that important of a person, yet his assassination led to the
onset of WWI.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Marie Antoinette knew that the French people were hungry.
Napoleon had conquered much of Europe.
The Puritans came to America to find freedom.
Sir Walter Raleigh brought tobacco from the New World back to England.
The conjunction so means something like The first sentence is the cause of the second sentence. Writers
commonly confuse the conjunction so with the subordinate conjunction so that.
EXAMPLE A: Fran turned the key so that the car would start.
EXAMPLE B: Fran turned the key so the car would start.
EXAMPLE C: Fran turned the key, so the car started.
Example A shows how so that is used. The first thing (turning the key) is done so that the second thing
(the car starting) will happen—but it hasn’t happened yet. Example B shows how in English the so that
can be shortened to so, which is why it can easily be confused with the so in example C. Notice that with
the so in example C, the car has already started. So as you write sentences #13-16, make sure you are
using the so from example C and not the so from examples A or B.
ASSIGNMENT:
(#13-16) Use the sentence you are given to create a compound sentence by adding a
comma, so, and a second sentence.
EXAMPLE: Many people voiced their opposition to the French Revolution, so Robespierre had them
beheaded.
13.
14.
15.
16.
The Germans underestimated the ferocity of a Russian winter.
The Titanic rammed into an iceberg.
The Vietnam War was an unpopular one.
Lech Walesa and his Solidarity party helped to unite Polish laborers.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #5—Compound Sentences
Nor—unlike the other six conjunctions—requires some changing of word order.
EXAMPLE: George Washington could not tell a lie, nor could he find himself a
decent wig to wear.
In a compound sentence joined by the conjunction nor, the first sentence will
contain the word not, and the verb in the second sentence will be split by the
subject of the second sentence. In the example above, the verb in the second
sentence is could find; the subject is he; the normal subject/verb order of he could
find becomes inverted: could he find. But even better than trying to memorize
some kind of subjects split verbs formula, you should be able to develop an ear for
a true sounding nor sentence.
ASSIGNMENT: Here’s some sentence combining. Combine each pair of
sentences into one compound sentence by using the conjunction
nor. The sentences are taken from American History to 1865.
EXAMPLE: Johnny Appleseed did not plant oranges.
He did not plant rutabagas. becomes >
Johnny Appleseed did not plant oranges, nor did he plant rutabagas.
1. Davy Crockett did not live through the battle at the Alamo.
He did not live long enough to see Texas gain its independence from Mexico.
2. The American South was not in favor of abolitionism.
It did not win the Civil War.
3. John Wilkes Booth was not a Union supporter.
He was not a fan of the theater.
4. The Native Americans who boarded the British ship were not really Native
Americans.
They were not really interested in having a tea party.
5. John Brown was not successful in his raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers
Ferry.
He did not live to hear the song about his body a-mold’ring in the grave.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #6—Compound Sentences
Here it is. Your final compound sentence assignment. This is your chance to show
what you can do on your own.
ASSIGNMENT: Write fourteen compound sentences. The instructions will tell
you what conjunction to use and whether your sentence should be same-subject or
different-subject.
Topic _______________________________________________________
1. same-subject/for
2. different-subject/for
3. same-subject/and
4. different-subject/and
5. same-subject/nor
6. different-subject/nor
7. same-subject/but
8. different-subject/but
9. same-subject/or
10. different-subject/or
11. same-subject/yet
12. different-subject/yet
13. same-subject/so
14. different-subject/so
Next: the Compound Sentence Practice Test/Study Sheet
Then: the Compound Sentence Test
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Compound Sentence Practice Test/Study Sheet
Section I consists of three short answer questions. Here are the questions and the answers:
1. What is a compound sentence? Two sentences joined together by a comma and a
conjunction.
2. List the seven conjunctions. Remember FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
3. Explain the difference between a compound sentence and a compound verb. Include three
parts to your answer: a) a compound sentence contains two subject/verb pairs b) a
compound verb is one subject with two verbs; it’s missing the second subject c) a compound
sentence is punctuated with a comma; a compound verb gets no comma.
Section II will ask you to write seven compound sentences using each conjunction once. Here are
some sentences to practice with. You’ll notice that five of the sentences are the same; two are
different. The first sentence contains the auxiliary verb might; use the conjunction or with #1.
The second sentence contains the word not; use the conjunction nor with #2. And don’t forget to
put commas before your conjunctions.
1.
Leonardo might eat a pizza.
2.
Leonardo did not eat a pizza.
3.
Leonardo ate a pizza.
4.
Leonardo ate a pizza.
5.
Leonardo ate a pizza.
6.
Leonardo ate a pizza.
7.
Leonardo ate a pizza.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Name: ______________________________
Compound Sentence Test
I. ______ pts. Short Answer.
1. What is a compound sentence?
2. List the seven conjunctions.
3. Explain the difference between a compound sentence and a compound verb.
II. ______ pts. Composition.
Use each of the sentences below as the first part of a compound sentence. You add the rest. USE
EACH CONJUNCTION ONCE. Scan the sentences and plan ahead before you begin.
1. The North won the Civil War.
2. The North won the Civil War.
3. The North will win the Civil War
4. The South did not win the Civil War.
5. The North won the Civil War.
6. The North won the Civil War.
7. The North won the Civil War.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #7—Complex Sentences
Now that we are experts at the compound sentence, it’s time to move on to the complex
sentence. The complex sentence is actually pretty simple, but it’ll require a whole mess of
complicated explanation before we get there; so get ready.
The complex sentence—like the compound sentence—is a way of joining two sentences. With
compound sentences, we join sentences with conjunctions, the FANBOYS words. With complex
sentences, we join sentences with words called subordinating conjunctions. Rather than worry
about all the subordinating conjunctions, we’ll work with sixteen of the most common. Here
they are:
after
although
as
as if
as long as
because
before
if
since
so that
though
till
unless
until
when
while
Next we need to learn how to form subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause is a sentence with a
subordinating conjunction (one of the sixteen words in our list) added to the front.
Robert E. Lee surrendered = sentence
After Robert E. Lee surrendered = subordinate clause
We start with a sentence, and by adding a word we end up with less than a sentence. After Robert
E. Lee surrendered is not a complete thought and it cannot stand by itself; it must be attached to
another sentence.
EXAMPLE A: The Union was restored after Robert E. Lee surrendered.
EXAMPLE B: After Robert E. Lee surrendered, the Union was restored.
Both example A and example B consist of two parts: one part is the complete sentence that can
stand by itself; the other part is the subordinate clause that attaches to the sentence. You can see
from the examples that the subordinate clause (in bold print) can attach to the sentence either at
the front or at the end.
If we let SV+ (subject verb plus other words) stand for the sentence, and we let SC stand for the
subordinate clause, we can construct two different formulas for the complex sentence:
EXAMPLE A: SV+SC (sentence subordinate clause)
EXAMPLE B: SC,SV+ (subordinate clause, sentence)
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Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #7—page 2
Notice also that the example B formula contains a comma, but the example A formula does not.
So when you place a subordinate clause in front of a sentence, use a comma; when you place a
subordinate clause at the end of a sentence, don’t use a comma.
ASSIGNMENT: We’ll start with something easy. Just to drive home the point that complex
sentences can always be flip-flopped, we’ll do some copying. The first three complex sentences
are written in the SV+SC pattern. You rewrite them in the SC,SV+ pattern and underline the
subordinate clause in each sentence. Remember to add a comma. The sentences are taken from
American History to 1865.
EXAMPLE:
The Gettysburg Address is a powerful speech although it is only three minutes
long. becomes >
Although it is only three minutes long, the Gettysburg Address is a powerful
speech.
1. Many New Englanders were frightened of going to hell after Jonathan Edwards gave his
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God sermon.
2. The life of a slave in the South was not much improved although Abraham Lincoln had
issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
3. Ulysses S. Grant greeted Robert E. Lee as he entered Appomattox Court House. (This one’s a
little tricky. You’ll have to begin As Robert E. Lee entered. . ., and you’ll have to use him at
the end of the sentence.)
(#4-6) Now the sentences will begin in the SC,SV+ pattern. You rewrite them in the SV+SC
pattern. Underline the subordinate clause in each sentence, and don’t use commas.
EXAMPLE:
As his own ship was sinking, John Paul Jones called out, “I have not yet begun
to fight.” becomes >
John Paul Jones called out, “I have not yet begun to fight” as his own ship was
sinking.
4. As if he could live twice, Nathan Hale said, “I only regret that I have one life to lose for my
country.”
5. As long as the First Amendment is upheld, no one will be able to interfere with another’s
freedom of religion, speech, assembly, or press.
6. Because gold had been discovered at Sutter’s Fort, eighty thousand prospectors flocked to
California in 1849.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #8—Complex Sentences
Here’s some sentence combining.
ASSIGNMENT: Use the subordinating conjunction in parentheses to form
complex sentences from the following pairs of sentences. Make two versions of
each. The first version (the odd number) will be an SC,SV+ sentence. The second
version will be an SV+SC sentence. All odd-numbered sentences will contain
commas and will begin with the subordinate conjunction. Even-numbered
sentences will contain no commas. Pay careful attention to the sentence order. You
may have to reverse the sentences. The sentences are taken from American History
to 1865.
EXAMPLE: He entered politics. (before)
Lincoln lived in a log cabin. becomes >
Before he entered politics, Lincoln lived in a log cabin.
then becomes >
Lincoln lived in a log cabin before he entered politics.
1. SC,SV+ 2. SV+SC
He was hanged in 1776. (before)
Nathan Hale said, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
3. SC,SV+ 4. SV+SC
Alexander Hamilton would have lived longer. (if)
He had not accepted Aaron Burr’s challenge to a duel.
5. SC,SV+ 6. SV+SC
Lincoln is sometimes referred to as “honest Abe.” (since)
He is so honest.
7. SC,SV+ 8. SV+SC
The American colonists would be stirred to revolt against the British. (so that)
Patrick Henry said, “Give me liberty or give me death!”
9. SC,SV+ 10. SV+SC
George Washington told the truth about the cherry tree. (though)
He might have gotten his rear end soundly thrashed.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #9—Complex Sentences
ASSIGNMENT: Once again you’ll make two versions of each sentence. All odd
numbers will take the form of SC,SV+; all even numbers will take the form of
SV+SC. You are given a sentence and a subordinating conjunction. You must do
the rest. You can use the sentence you are given as the SV+ or as part of the SC.
The sentences are from American History to 1865. If your sentences are
historically accurate, great; if you don’t know the historical reference, just make
something up.
EXAMPLE: Paul Revere warned the colonists. (till) becomes >
Till Paul Revere warned the colonists, they had no idea that the
British were coming. or>
The British were preparing a surprise attack till Paul Revere warned
the colonists. or>
Paul Revere warned the colonists till his ride had ended. or>
Till his ride had ended, Paul Revere warned the colonists.
1. SC,SV+ 2. SV+SC
Lewis and Clark charted a trail through the Pacific Northwest. (till)
3. SC,SV+ 4. SV+SC
Captain John Smith will be killed by Powhatan. (unless)
5. SC,SV+ 6. SV+SC
George Washington crossed the Delaware. (when)
7. SC,SV+ 8. SV+SC
Henry David Thoreau built his shack. (while)
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #10—Complex Sentences
Remember the days when we studied the compound sentence? And remember how we worked
with same-subject and different-subject compound sentences? Well, guess what. That’s right.
Complex sentences can also be written as either same-subject or different-subject sentences. In
the following examples, each of the subjects is underlined.
EXAMPLE A: (different-subject) Many slaves escaped from the South after the Underground
Railroad was formed.
EXAMPLE B: (same-subject) Harriet Tubman was a slave herself before she worked with the
Underground Railroad.
EXAMPLE C: (same-subject) She was a slave herself before Harriet Tubman worked with the
Underground Railroad.
EXAMPLE D: (same-subject) Before she worked with the Underground Railroad, Harriet
Tubman was a slave herself.
One of the above examples doesn’t sound right. But which one? Did I hear you say C? But why
doesn’t it sound right? Are you calling out, “Because it doesn’t sound right to put the pronoun
she before Harriet Tubman, the noun it refers to”? Of course you are. But what about D? In
example D the pronoun is also placed before the noun it refers to, yet it sounds OK. So based on
the examples above, what rule can we form? Here is the rule you shout out as your classmates
turn to you in awe and respect: IN AN SV+SC SENTENCE, THE NOUN BEING REFERRED TO
SHOULD PRECEDE THE PRONOUN THAT REFERS TO IT (AS IN EXAMPLE B); BUT IN AN
SC,SV+ SENTENCE, IT’S OK IF THE PRONOUN PRECEDES THE NOUN IT REFERS TO.
OK. You can stop shouting now.
Before we begin the assignment, a few words about some of the subordinating conjunctions:
Although and though both mean the same thing. Choose whichever word you think sounds best.
Till and until also mean the same thing. Choose whichever word you think sounds best.
As means at the same time. Sure, the attendance office gets millions of notes from parents who
write “Please excuse my little Billy Bob as he had the flu”; but this is a poor use of the word as.
The parent is asking the office to excuse Billy Bob at the same time as his flu. But Billy Bob no
longer has the flu, so excusing him at the same time is not even possible. What the parent really
means is “Please excuse my little Billy Bob because he had the flu.”
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Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #10—page 2
Here are three sentences containing since.
EXAMPLE A: The colonists became known as the Minutemen since they could be assembled
for battle so quickly.
EXAMPLE B: The White House has been without an accomplished harmonica player since
Lincoln was shot in 1865.
EXAMPLE C: The White House has been without an accomplished harmonica player since
1865.
Since has two meanings: In example A it means because; in example B it means since that time.
In example C the meaning is also since that time. The difference is that example B is a complex
sentence, but example C is not. Why not? Because in B, Lincoln was shot in 1865 is a complete
sentence; in C 1865 is not a complete sentence. So here’s the deal: If you’re using since to
construct a complex sentence, you can use since in either of its two meanings. like in A or B. But
don’t use since as it is used in example C; example C is not a complex sentence.
ASSIGNMENT: Write sentences of your own according to the instructions given. Choose your
subordinating conjunctions from the list (you’ll need to have a copy of the list of subordinating
conjunctions). No, you won’t use all of the subordinating conjunctions, but don’t use any of them
twice.
Topic: _____________________________________________________
1. SC,SV+ / different subject
2. SC,SV+ / different subject
3. SC,SV+ / different subject
4. SC,SV+ / same subject
5. SC,SV+ / same subject
6. SC,SV+ / same subject
7. SV+SC / different subject
8. SV+SC / different subject
9. SV+SC / different subject
10. SV+SC / same subject
11. SV+SC / same subject
12. SV+SC / same subject
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #11—Complex Sentences
When you join two sentences by making a compound sentence, it’s called
coordinating. That means that the two parts of the compound sentence are equal to
one another. When you join two sentences by making a complex sentence, it’s
called subordinating. That means that one part of the complex sentence is a
sentence that can stand by itself (the SV+) and the other part of the complex
sentence (the subordinate clause) can only exist if it is attached to the SV+. The
two parts of the complex sentence are not equal because one part cannot exist
unless it is attached to the other part.
As you write, you will frequently find yourself faced with a choice between
coordinating and subordinating. In such a case, you may choose whichever method
sounds better to you. Here in PP #11, we’re going to practice changing compound
sentences to complex, and vice versa.
EXAMPLE A: (from compound to complex sentence)
Susan B. Anthony was active in the abolitionist movement, and she worked
for women’s suffrage. becomes>
Before she worked for women’s suffrage, Susan B. Anthony was active in
the abolitionist movement. or>
Susan B. Anthony was active in the abolitionist movement before she
worked for women’s suffrage.
EXAMPLE B: (from complex to compound sentence)
Because he was white, Allan Bakke was denied admission to medical
school. becomes>
Allan Bakke was denied admission to medical school, for he was white.
ASSIGNMENT: Change compound sentences to complex sentences, and vice
versa. Sometimes the meaning of the conjunction and the subordinate conjunction
will be exact (for and because mean the same thing). At other times the sentence
you write will have a slightly different meaning from the one you are given (as in
example A above). The sentences are from American History since 1865.
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Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #11—page 2
subordinating conjunctions
after
although
as
as if
as long as
because
before
if
since
so that
though
till
unless
until
when
while
(#1-4) Change from compound to complex.
1. The Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs, but they failed in their attempt to
overthrow Fidel Castro.
2. Lizzie Borden is remembered as an axe murderer, yet she was found not guilty
of her crime.
3. Teddy Roosevelt said the United States should “speak softly and carry a big
stick,” so he became known for big stick diplomacy.
4. The Supreme Court heard the case of Brown versus the Board of Education,
and it ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
(#5-8) Change from complex to compound.
conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
1. Although his real name was William Cody, people called him Buffalo Bill.
2. Because Confederate supporters were not allowed to hold office after the Civil
War, carpetbaggers from the North were sent to the South.
3. As if they didn’t plan on staying very long, these politicians from the North
arrived in the South with only a single carpetbag.
4. Before he became the president of the United States, Jimmy Carter was a
peanut farmer.
Next: the Complex Sentence Practice Test/Study Sheet
Then: the Complex Sentence Test
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Complex Sentence Practice Test/Study Sheet
Section I of the test consists of three questions. Here are the questions along with the answers.
1. What is a complex sentence? There are two different correct answers. You may pick
either one: a) Two sentences joined by a subordinating conjunction. b) A sentence that
can stand alone plus a subordinate clause.
2. What is a subordinate clause? A sentence with a subordinating conjunction added to the
front. Because of the subordinating conjunction that has been added to the front, it can
now no longer stand by itself.
3. There are two ways to form a complex sentence. What are they? By placing a subordinate
clause before a sentence, or by placing a subordinate clause after a sentence.
In section II, you will write eight sentences. You will be given an instruction and a sentence. The
sentence will become either the SV+ or the SC of the sentence you compose.
EXAMPLE:
SC,SV+ / different subject: Hank Aaron hit a home run.
The given sentence can be used as the SV+: Although the pitch was low, Hank
Aaron hit a home run.
The given sentence can be used to form the SC: Although Hank Aaron hit a home
run, the Braves lost.
Here are some problems like the ones that will be on the test. Use them to practice with. Since
there is not much room left on this side, you might want to write practice sentences on the back
of this page or on separate paper.
Here are some subordinating conjunctions. Don’t use any of them more than once:
after
although
as
as if
as long as
because
before
if
since
so that
though
till
unless
until
when
while
SV+SC / different subject: Richard Byrd flew over the North Pole.
SV+SC / same subject: Muhammad Ali floats like a butterfly.
SC,SV+ / different subject: General Custer was killed at Little Bighorn.
SC,SV+ / same subject: Edward Kennedy drove his car off the bridge.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
*******DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST*******
Complex Sentence Test
I. ______ pts. Short answer.
1. What is a complex sentence?
2. What is a subordinate clause?
3. There are two ways to form a complex sentence. What are they?
II. ______ pts. Composition.
Use each of the sentences below in a complex sentence. The sentence you are
given can be used either as the SV+ or to form the subordinate clause (SC). No
subordinating conjunction may be used more than once. Your sentences don’t need
to be historically accurate.
after
although
as
as if
as long as
because
before
if
since
so that
though
till
unless
until
when
while
1. SV+SC / different subject: Clara Barton founded the Red Cross.
2. SV+SC / different subject: Buses in the South were segregated.
3. SV+SC / same subject: Billy the Kid shot the sheriff.
4. SV+SC / same subject: William Randolph Hearst built Hearst Castle.
5. SC,SV+ / different subject: Casey Jones bravely stayed at the train’s controls.
6. SC,SV+ / different subject: John F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.
7. SC,SV+ / same subject: Charles Lindbergh flew across the Atlantic Ocean.
8. SC,SV+ / same subject: Richard Nixon resigned from the presidency.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Bonus Assignment: Compound-Complex Sentences
So far you have studied the various ways that the English language allows for
putting two sentences together. It is also possible to put three sentences together.
How? Simple. Put a compound sentence together with a complex sentence and
there you have it—the compound-complex sentence.
Here are the four patterns, with examples:
SV+,CSV+SC:
SV+;CSC,SV+:
SV+SC,CSV+:
SC,SV+;CSV+:
The fifteen men got on the dead man’s chest, but they all fell
off because they were drunken pirates.
Dr. Faustus was glad to sell his soul to the devil; yet when the
devil arrived to claim his soul, Faustus was no longer happy
about the deal he had made.
Caesar asked “Et tu, Brute?” as he was being stabbed by
Brutus, for he thought Brutus was a good friend.
Before the snake could drop to the bed, Sherlock Holmes had
killed it with a steel poker; and it fell harmlessly from the bell
rope.
Here’s another way to look at the same four patterns. Let C stand for conjunction
and SC stand for subordinating conjunction:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sentence, C sentence SC sentence. (Don’t use but or because)
Sentence; C SC sentence, sentence. (Don’t use yet or when)
Sentence SC sentence, C sentence. (Don’t use as or for)
SC sentence, sentence; C sentence. (Don’t use before or and)
ASSIGNMENT: Write eight compound-complex sentences of your own, two for
each of the patterns listed above.
topic _______________________________________________________
1&2.
3&4.
5&6.
7&8.
SV+,CSV+SC
SV+;CSC,SV+
SV+SC,CSV+
SC,SV+;CSV+
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #12—Conjunctive Adverbs
So far you have joined sentences together with conjunctions (to create compound sentences) and
with subordinating conjunctions (to form complex sentences); now it’s time to meet our new
friend, the conjunctive adverb (CA). Here’s the formula: SV+;CA,SV+.
Here’s the long version: A sentence, followed by a semicolon (;), followed by a conjunctive
adverb, followed by another sentence.
A list of some commonly used adverbs:
besides
consequently
finally
for example
furthermore
however
in fact
later
moreover
nevertheless
next
now
otherwise
still
then
therefore
Notice that these words are more formal sounding than conjunctions or subordinating
conjunctions. You probably wouldn’t use conjunctive adverbs in a note to a friend; but you
would want to use a few conjunctive adverbs in any essays or business letters you might write.
ASSIGNMENT: To each sentence you are given, add a semicolon, the conjunctive adverb, a
comma, and a second sentence. The sentences are taken from American History since 1865.
Besides means not only that, but . . .
EXAMPLE:
Thousands of people left the Dust Bowl region; besides, they could get a much
better tan in California.
1. Many people thought it was foolish to pay seven million dollars for Alaska. (besides)
Consequently means the second thing happened because of the first thing.
EXAMPLE:
Dwight D. Eisenhower was the general in charge of the U.S. victory in WWII;
consequently, he was elected president in 1952.
2. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. (consequently)
Finally means this thing happened last.
EXAMPLE:
Students at Kent State would not cease in their demonstration against the Vietnam
War; finally, four students were shot and killed by the National Guard.
3. Baseball was an all-white sport until 1947. (finally)
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Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #12—page 2
For example means here is a specific example of the first statement.
EXAMPLE:
Some people refuse to give in to their handicaps; for example, Helen Keller
overcame her blindness and deafness to learn how to read, write, and use sign
language.
4. The United States allows the existence of racist organizations. (for example)
Furthermore means not only that, but this . . .
EXAMPLE:
During the Great Depression of the 1930’s, many banks and businesses failed;
furthermore, many people lost their jobs.
5. Martin Luther King believed that the United States should put an end to racial segregation.
(furthermore)
However means judging from what was just said, you might not expect this following statement
to be true.
EXAMPLE:
Many people expected the country to grow strong under the leadership of John F.
Kennedy; however, he was assassinated after only two years in office.
6. Robert Kennedy had high hopes of winning the democratic presidential nomination in 1968.
(however)
In fact means not only that, but this . . .
EXAMPLE:
The American people lost their faith in Richard Nixon; in fact, Nixon was forced
to resign in 1974.
7. Ronald Reagan could not remember being told about selling arms to Iran. (in fact)
Later means the second thing happened after the first.
EXAMPLE:
On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima; later, a second
bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
8. Sioux warriors overwhelmed the U.S. cavalry at the battle of Little Bighorn. (later)
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #13—Conjunctive Adverbs
PP #13 is a continuation of PP #12. In PP #12 you used eight conjunctive adverbs.
Here in PP #13 you’ll use the other eight.
ASSIGNMENT: Copy the sentence you are given. Add a semicolon, a
conjunctive adverb, and a comma. Then make up the second sentence on your
own. (SV+;CA,SV+) The sentences are taken from World Politics.
Moreover means not only that, but this . . .
EXAMPLE: In the 1950’s Joseph McCarthy branded many prominent Americans
as communists; moreover, those who even associated with
communists were treated as guilty.
1. The United States entered World War II to retaliate for the bombing of Pearl
Harbor. (moreover)
Nevertheless means this thing happened even though you wouldn’t have expected it
to.
EXAMPLE: For many years the battle against apartheid has been fought;
nevertheless, the white government of South Africa refuses to
relinquish control.
2. Many American scientists warned the American government against using the
atomic bomb. (nevertheless)
Next means this happened next.
EXAMPLE: Opponents of the Soviet government were arrested; next, they were
placed in the gulag.
3. Hitler decided that the Semitic people were responsible for Germany’s
problems. (next)
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Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #13—page 2
Now means that’s how it used to be, but now it’s like this.
EXAMPLE: In the early twentieth century suffragettes campaigned for the right to
vote; now, women fight for equal rights and equal wages.
4. For much of the twentieth century the United States and the Soviet Union were
engaged in a cold war. (now)
Otherwise means it’s better that the first thing happen so that the second thing
doesn’t.
EXAMPLE: We must continue to fight for and protect our freedoms; otherwise,
we might find ourselves in a police state.
5. Many of our leaders believe that we must always work to maintain a balance of
power among the nations of the world. (otherwise)
Still means the second thing shouldn’t be the case, but it is.
EXAMPLE: Our government should not practice brinkmanship; still, our armed
forces are continually being sent into the troubled areas of the world.
6. Thoreau, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King have shown the world how to combat
injustice with civil disobedience. (still)
Then means the next thing happened after the first thing.
EXAMPLE: The communist government became too oppressive for working
people in Poland; then, Lech Walesa formed the Solidarity party.
7. The Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989.
Therefore means the second thing happened because of the first thing.
EXAMPLE: Power tends to corrupt; therefore, absolute power corrupts absolutely.
8. The boat people would be imprisoned or killed if they were returned to their
native land. (therefore)
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #14—The Semicolon
A semicolon is used to separate two closely related sentences.
The formula: SV+;SV+. (Sentence; sentence.)
EXAMPLE A: John plays baseball; Joe plays basketball.
EXAMPLE B: John plays baseball; he practices every day.
In example A we have two similar statements about two different people; in
example B we have two related statements about the same person. Notice that the
word after the semicolon (the first word of the second sentence) is not capitalized.
Joe is capitalized because it is a proper noun; otherwise, it would not be
capitalized.
ASSIGNMENT: Copy each of the sentences below. You add a semicolon and a
second sentence. The sentences are from American Politics.
EXAMPLE: Academic freedom is the right to say what you think while in the
classroom. becomes >
Academic freedom is the right to say what you think while in the classroom;
teachers and students should take advantage of this right.
1. The government requires many companies to be affirmative action employers.
2. The Alaskan pipeline begins in Prudhoe Bay.
3. The American Legion is the largest organization of American veterans.
4. Arson is the crime of setting fire to another’s property.
5. Busing is one solution to segregated schools.
6. A capital offense is a crime so serious that it could result in the death penalty.
7. The electric chair is one form of capital punishment.
8. CIA stands for Central Intelligence Agency.
9. Being a conscientious objector is one means of avoiding military service.
10. The Eighth Amendment to the Constitution prohibits cruel and unusual
punishment.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #15—The Colon
Almost everyone knows the use a colon when a list follows routine. But few people
know that a colon can be used like a semicolon.
SV+: SV+. (General statement: specific example.)
Here’s the rule: When the two sentences are equal in importance, use a semicolon;
when the second sentence is a specific example of why the first sentence is true,
use a colon. It’s quite similar to the way you develop a paragraph: you start with a
topic sentence and follow it up with concrete evidence.
EXAMPLE: Bertram had trouble getting a date: he had intense body odor and
long nasal hair.
ASSIGNMENT: Copy each of the sentences below. Add a colon and a second
sentence. Your second sentence should be a specific example of why the first
sentence is true. The sentences are taken from American Politics.
EXAMPLE: Moondoggie exercised his civil liberties. becomes >
Moondoggie exercised his civil liberties: he refused to join his
classmates in singing God Bless America.
1. G.I. Joe won the Congressional Medal of Honor.
2. Ross Perot was the dark horse.
3. Happy’s Bun-n-Run is an equal opportunity employer.
4. Homer exercised his First Amendment rights.
5. Iris was charged with larceny.
6. Percival was charged with libel.
7. Henrietta was charged with a misdemeanor.
8. Fozzie went through the process of naturalization.
9. Moondoggie looked a lot like Uncle Sam.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #16—Semicolons and Colons
ASSIGNMENT: Find the sentence from the second column that would follow the
sentence from the first column. Pay attention to the colons and the semicolons.
Remember that a semicolon separates two sentences that are closely related and
roughly equal in importance; a colon says that the second sentence is a specific
example of the general statement made in the first statement. The sentences are
taken from Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology; the names are all characters
from Hamlet.
Number your paper from 1-10. Simply match the letter to the number.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Claudius was pro-choice;
Claudius was pro-choice:
Horatio has amnesia;
Horatio has amnesia:
Rosencrantz has an anal
personality;
6. Rosencrantz has an anal
personality:
7. Ophelia was filled with anxiety;
8. Ophelia was filled with anxiety:
9. Laertes became an archaeologist;
10. Laertes became an archaeologist:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
he has no idea who he is.
Gertrude was pro-life.
he studies the relics of ancient cultures.
it was for him the fulfillment of a
life-long goal.
he believed in a woman’s right to an
abortion.
no one is certain how it started.
she was afraid of failing her final.
he is obsessed with being neat and tidy.
she needed someone to help her feel
more confident.
Guildenstern is more oral.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #17—The Compound Sentence, Exceptions-to-the-Rule
You have now learned every possible way to put two sentences together. You’ve
learned how to put two sentences together with conjunctions (compound
sentences), with subordinate conjunctions (complex sentences), with conjunctive
adverbs, with semicolons, and with colons. That’s it. In the English language, there
are not other ways to put two sentences together. But before we get to the final test,
there are a few stylistic devices and exceptions-to-the-rule to be covered.
We’ll start with the compound sentence rule: A compound sentence is formed when
two sentences are joined by a comma and a conjunction. There are three
exceptions to this rule:
A. A compound sentence may also be written as two sentences; yes, folks, it’s OK
to begin a sentence with a conjunction.
B. If either or both of the sentences in a compound sentence are short and simple,
you may drop the comma before the conjunction.
C. If either or both of the sentences in a compound sentence already contain one
(or more than one) comma, use a semicolon before the conjunction.
ASSIGNMENT: Number your paper from 1-10. Decide which exception to the
rule is demonstrated by each of the ten sentences and write A, B, or C next to the
number. The sentences are taken from Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology;
the names are all characters from Romeo and Juliet.
1. Romeo lost touch with the real world; so after meeting with a psychologist, he
was labeled autistic.
2. Beatniks played bongos and they liked to say “Daddy-O.”
3. Juliet received an electric shock every time she talked out of turn. But the
behavior modification failed to work.
4. Montague was a blue-collar worker. And Capulet was a white-collar worker.
5. Mercutio was suspected of being a communist so he was blacklisted.
6. Tybalt began supporting the government for he had been brainwashed.
7. Originally, this government was a democracy; but now, with all the red tape and
petty government officials, our government can be more accurately described as
a bureaucracy.
8. Benvolio was egocentric but he wouldn’t admit it.
9. Father Lawrence’s children, all three of them, had left home; and now he faced
an empty nest, a home without children.
10. The prince begged the nurse for euthanasia. So she pulled the plug.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #18—The Complex Sentence, Exceptions-to-the-Rule
There are two variations of the complex sentence you should know about.
Normally we use a comma when a subordinate clause is placed in front of a
sentence (SC,SV+) but not when a subordinate clause is placed after a sentence
(SV+SC). One exception to this rule is the occasional use of a comma in the
SV+SC pattern. In certain sentences, you might hear a pause between the sentence
and the subordinate clause. If so, feel free to break the rule and use the comma.
EXAMPLE A: The Gettysburg Address is a powerful speech although it is only
three minutes long.
EXAMPLE B: The Gettysburg Address is a powerful speech, although it is only
three minutes long.
Example A follows the regular rule: a sentence followed by a subordinate clause
without a comma. Example B is the same sentence, except that the writer hears a
definite pause between the sentence and the subordinate clause and so decided to
place a comma there.
You’ve learned one exception to the complex sentence rule, but you’re not going
to practice it here; just file it away for later use. What you will practice is a
variation of the complex sentence using more than one subordinate clause.
ASSIGNMENT: Write complex sentences of your own according to the
instructions given. The examples are from Anthropology, Psychology, and
Sociology.
Topic: ____________________________________________________
EXAMPLE: SC,SC,SV+ (using as)
As the Vietnam War escalated, as the government grew more and more out of
touch with the American people, the hippies turned to communes, free love, and
marijuana.
1. SC,SC,SV+. Begin both subordinate clauses with after.
2. SC,SC,SV+. Begin both subordinate clauses with because.
over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #18—page 2
EXAMPLE: SV+SC,SC (using although)
Marshall McLuhan wrote that most people think they are in control of their own
lives although they are really being controlled by the media, although the television
controls every area of their lives.
3. SV+SC,SC. Begin both subordinate clauses with before.
4. SV+SC,SC. Begin both subordinate clauses with if.
EXAMPLE: SC,SC,SC,SV+ (using since)
Since many of the most popular bands of the 60’s were gathered there, since
400,000 members of the counterculture had gathered there, since all cares and
inhibitions had been thrown to the wind, Woodstock became one of the most
memorable festivals in history.
5. SC,SC,SC,SV+. Begin all three subordinate clauses with though.
6. SC,SC,SC,SV+. Begin all three subordinate clauses with until.
EXAMPLE: SV+SC,SC,SC (using where)
Prejudice exists where people are afraid of understanding their neighbors, where
people live in fear of others, where people have embraced ignorance as a way of
life.
7. SV+SC,SC,SC. Begin all three subordinate clauses with unless.
8. SV+SC,SC,SC. Begin all three subordinate clauses with while.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #19—Conjunctive Adverbs, Exceptions-to-the-Rule
In PP #17 we practiced identifying three different exceptions to the compound sentence rule. In
PP #18 we learned that it’s permissible to add a comma to an SV+SC sentence and that two or
three (or even more) subordinate clauses can be placed in succession. Here in PP #19 we’ll
examine three exceptions to the conjunctive adverb rule. The rule: Two sentences can be joined
by a semicolon, a conjunctive adverb, and a comma (SV+;CA,SV+ or Sentence;CA,sentence).
Here are three exceptions to this rule:
A. The two sentences can be written as two separate sentences; the conjunctive adverb gets
capitalized and becomes the first word of the second sentence.
B. There are two situations in which you might decide to drop the comma after the conjunctive
adverb:
1) You are using a shorter conjunctive adverb, like now.
2) You simply do not hear the pause.
Often these two reasons go together: the reason you don’t hear the pause is that the
conjunctive adverb is a short one.
C. It’s possible to move the conjunctive adverb from its position between two sentences to a
position within the second sentence. Of all the conjunctive adverbs, however is the easiest to
move.
ASSIGNMENT: Number your paper from 1-8. Decide which exception to the rule is
demonstrated by each of the ten sentences and write A, B, or C next to the number. The
sentences are taken from Physical Sciences and Mathematics; the names are all characters from
The Outsiders.
1. An acute angle measures less than ninety degrees; an obtuse angle, however, measures more
than ninety degrees.
2. The gravity of a black hole is so strong that everything is drawn to it. In fact, even light itself
is sucked up by the gravitational pull of a black hole.
3. People once believed that the earth was the center of the solar system; now we believe that
the sun is the center, thanks to the discoveries of Copernicus in the 16th century.
4. Halley’s comet passed close to the earth in 1986. Therefore, it will appear again in 2062.
5. The Big Bang theory is one scientific account of how the universe began; religious
fundamentalists, however, believe that the universe was created by God.
6. Albert Einstein helped the United States develop the atomic bomb; later he spoke out against
the evils of nuclear weapons.
7. Galileo agreed with Copernicus that the earth moved around the sun; then he was forced by
the Catholic Church to publicly declare that he was wrong.
8. The Hindenburg was filled with hydrogen. Consequently, it burned so rapidly that few
people escaped alive.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #20—Final Mastery Assignment
Topic: _______________________________________________________
ASSIGNMENT: This is it: the final mastery assignment, covering every sentence
pattern you’ve learned since you began this series of assignments so long ago.
Compose sentences of your own according to the patterns given.
COMPOUND SENTENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
SV+,CSV+.
SV+,CSV+.
SV+,CSV+.
SV+,CSV+.
SV+,CSV+.
SV+,CSV+.
SV+,CSV+.
Use and.
Use but.
Use or.
Use for.
Use yet.
Use so.
Use nor. (Careful: it’s different.)
COMPLEX SENTENCES
8. SV+SC. Use after.
9. SV+SC. Use although.
10. SV+SC. Use because.
11. SC,SV+. Use before.
12. SC,SV+. Use if.
13. SC,SV+. Use until.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
14. SV+;CA,SV+. Use consequently.
15. SV+;CA,SV+. Use however.
16. SV+;CA,SV+. Use nevertheless.
17. SV+;CA,SV+. Use therefore.
over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #20—page 2
SEMICOLONS
18. SV+;SV+.
19. SV+;SV+.
COLONS
20. SV+:SV+.
21. SV+:SV+.
EXCEPTIONS-TO-THE-RULE
22. SV+. CSV+. (Begin the second sentence with a conjunction.)
23. SV+CSV+. (Both sentences are short; drop the comma.)
24. SV+;CSV+. (A conjunction joins two sentences; but because one or both of
the two sentences has a comma already in it, a semicolon is placed before
the conjunction.)
25. SC,SC,SC,SV+. (Begin all three SC’s with because)
26. SV+,SC. (Use though.)
27. SV+. CA,SV+. (Begin the second sentence with a conjunctive adverb.)
28. SV+;CASV+. (Choose a shorter conjunctive adverb; drop the comma.)
29. SV+;S,CA,V+. (Use however; move it to the middle of the second sentence.)
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Bonus Assignment: Review Sheet
Coordinating and Subordinating with Cumulative Sentences
This assignment is designed for those students who have completed Pro Prose I, the first book in
this series. Here’s a quick review of some things we learned in Pro Prose I:
Relative clauses: Relative clauses can begin with who, that, which, whom, or whose; but in this
assignment we’ll use only who and which.
EXAMPLE:
Ptolemy, who was an ancient Greek astronomer, declared that the sun was the
center of the universe.
EXAMPLE: Mars, which is the fourth planet from the sun, is named after the Roman god of
war.
Participial phrases: Participial phrases usually begin with past or present participles. If you
can’t remember how to construct past participles, stick with present participles, which always
end in -ing.
EXAMPLE:
Watching the apple fall to the ground, Isaac Newton discovered the law of
gravity.
Appositives: Appositives are another name for a noun.
EXAMPLE:
Traveling at Mach 1, the speed of light, can really make a mess of your hair.
Absolutes: Absolutes 1) describe part of the subject 2) usually begin with a possessive pronoun
(my, your, his, her, its, your, our) 3) can be constructed by deleting a verb like was from a
sentence: His mustache was filled with chalk dust becomes > His mustache filled with chalk
dust.
EXAMPLE:
KEY
S
V+
RC
PP
AP
AB
C
CA
SC
;
—
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Albert Einstein, his mustache filled with chalk dust, sneezed in front of the class.
subject
verb (plus other words)
relative clause
participial phrase
appositive
absolute
conjunction
conjunctive adverb
subordinate clause
semicolon
dash
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Bonus Assignment:
Coordinating and Subordinating with Cumulative Sentences
ASSIGNMENT: This is the assignment in which you prove you are a supreme
master of sentence structure. The formulas will combine what you learned long ago
in Pro Prose I with what you’ve learned in Pro Prose II.
I. Write the formula to match the sentence. The sentences are taken from
Mythology and Folklore.
1. After Achilles killed Hector, the Trojan Hero, he rode his chariot around the
walls of Troy, dragging behind him Hector’s body—a miserable lump of
flesh—holding the reins in one hand, shouting defiance to the horrified Trojans
who looked on.
2. The Beast—gasping for breath, his heart broken—lay dying in his garden; for
Beauty, who had promised to return, had forgotten him.
3. Floating above the dance floor, exchanging smiles with the other dancers, her
heart having been stolen by the prince, Cinderella forgot to keep track of the
time; thus, the hour of midnight passed, and Cinderella lost her beautiful gown,
which turned back into rags.
4. Gathering together for the big event, the people loudly praised the emperor, a
silly old man; then a young boy, who was too innocent to lie, cried out that the
emperor was naked.
5. Little Red Riding Hood, her basket held in one arm, was on her way to visit her
grandmother when a wolf appeared from out of the forest; the wolf, pretending
to be concerned for Little Red, soon found out that she was on her way to her
grandmother’s house, a two-story brick building on the other side of the forest.
II. Write sentences of your own to match the formulas.
Topic: _______________________________________________________
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
PP,SV+;CS,AP,V+.
S,RC,V+;CSV+.
SV+; SV+,AB,AB,AB.
SV+;S—PP,PP—V+.
PP, SV+;CA,S,RC,V+.
SV+,AP;CA,S,RC,V+.
SC,SV+,PP.
AB,S,RC,V+SC,AP.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Final Test: Practice Test/Study Sheet
conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as long as, because, before, if, since,
so that, though, till, unless, until, when, while
conjunctive adverbs: besides, consequently, finally, furthermore, however, in fact, later,
moreover, nevertheless, next, now, otherwise, still, then, therefore
In section one of the final test, you’ll be given ten sentences and be asked to fill in the blanks
with words chosen from the three categories up above. Use the punctuation marks to determine
which type of conjunction to use. Here are some sentences to practice with. Some have more
than one correct answer.
1. Lennie was the strongest man in the bunkhouse, ________________ he was also the
stupidest.
2. Ethan Frome was trapped in an unhappy marriage; ________________ , he was willing to
take desperate measures to find some happiness.
3. ________________ the three blind mice were blind, they had a lot of trouble running away
from the farmer’s wife.
4. Tarzan was raised by a family of apes ________________ his own family was killed.
5. Walter Mitty imagined himself as a heroic fighter pilot, a famous surgeon, and a fearless
soldier; ________________ he was actually nothing more than a henpecked husband.
In section two of the final test, you’ll be asked to punctuate with commas, semicolons, colons,
and periods. Try these:
1. Bob Cratchit was mistreated by Scrooge but he was always happy at Christmas.
2. Romeo killed Tybalt therefore he was banished from the city of Verona.
3. Robin Hood robbed from the rich Robin Hood gave to the poor.
4. Robin Hood robbed from the rich he felt that they had more than they needed.
5. If the ancient mariner had not killed the albatross he wouldn’t have had so many
troubles at sea.
over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over—over
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Final Test: Practice Test/Study Sheet—page 2
6. The heartbroken lover was about to fall asleep with his books when a raven tapped
at his chamber door.
7. Ben Franklin is healthy, wealthy, and wise for he always goes to bed early and gets
up early.
8. Christian got out of the Slough of Despond and continued on his way to the
Celestial City.
9. Poems are made by fools like me But only God can make a tree.
10. Old Mother Hubbard went to the cupboard Nevertheless she was unable to find her
dog a bone.
11. Paul Revere made his midnight ride he did not however feel very rested the next
morning.
In section three of the final test, you’ll be given some sentence patterns. To create sentences that
match the patterns, you’ll choose two sentences from a list and combine them with a
conjunction, a subordinate conjunction, or a conjunctive adverb. If you see something like
“Hamlet/he,” feel free to choose between the two. Here we go.
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(Hamlet/he) wanted to kill (Claudius/him).
(Claudius/he) had killed (him/Hamlet’s father).
(Hamlet’s father/he) wandered the castle as a ghost.
(Hamlet/he) did not have the nerve to kill (Claudius/him).
(Hamlet’s mother/she) drank (the cup of wine/it).
(Hamlet’s mother/she) did not know that (the cup of wine/it) was poisoned.
(The cup of wine/it) was poisoned.
Claudius was an evil man.
(Claudius/he) had married (Hamlet’s/his) mother.
SV+,C SV+.
SV+;CA, SV+.
SV+; SV+.
SV+: SV+.
SC, SV+.
SV+SC.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Name ___________________________
Final Test
conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as long as, because, before, if, since,
so that, though, till, unless, until, when, while
conjunctive adverbs: besides, consequently, finally, furthermore, however, in fact, later,
moreover, nevertheless, next, now, otherwise, still, then, therefore
I. ______ pt. Fill in the blank.
1. Beowulf slew Grendel; __________________ , he slew Grendel’s mother.
2. The wolf huffed and puffed, __________________ he could not blow the house down.
3. There was no joy in Mudville __________________ mighty Casey had struck out.
4. __________________ Scrooge received his visits from the three ghosts, he became the most
generous man in town.
5. E.E. Cummings often used no capital letters __________________ he wrote his poetry.
6. Willy Loman committed suicide, __________________ he felt he had been a failure in life.
7. Dr. Frankenstein wanted to prove that he had power over life itself, __________________ he
created a monster.
8. Hamlet told Ophelia to get to a nunnery __________________ she wouldn’t be bothered by
men and their lies.
9. The Three Bears frightened Goldilocks; __________________ , she ran from the house.
10. __________________ Jack had not traded his cow for the magic beans, he never would have
found the giant’s treasures.
continued—continued—continued—continued—continued—continued
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Final Test page 2
II. ______ pts. Punctuation. For each of the following add the correct punctuation mark(s). You
may add commas, semicolons, colons, or periods. Some sentences will contain more than one
punctuation mark; some will contain none. If the sentence needs no punctuation, do nothing
to it. BE CLEAR AND CAREFUL ABOUT EACH MARK YOU MAKE—OR DON’T MAKE.
1. All
the
king’s
Humpty
2. The
men
Dumpty
sailor
is
back
home
3. Ichabod
Crane
4. Because
the
people
of
Lilliput
5. Little
Bo
Peep
6. Little
Boy
7. The
they
Little
all
has
Blue
was
Red
on
her
in
a
to.
Hen’s
friends
to
sea
the
hunter
when
he
saw
were
help
sheep
lot
supposed
wanted
however
they
could
not
put
is
home
from the
hill.
the
headless
horseman.
so
small
Gulliver
had
and
can’t
tell
where
he
did
help
her
to
be
careful
them.
lost
was
wall
again.
from the
terror
stepping
the
together
in
not
he
to
fled
about
when
hurried
eat
of
trouble
would
not
the
to
find
them.
not
blow
his
horn
bake
the
bread
day
but
the
yet
bread.
8. (Do nothing to the two commas that are already in this sentence.)
Mary,
who
followed
9. The
10. The
11. Peter
her
pied
refused
had
old
onto
piper
to
pay
man’s
Piper
a
little
campus
lured
all
lamb,
went
without
the
rats
to
a
school
one
lamb
pass.
into
the
river
But
the
townspeople
him.
heartbeat
picked
a
grew
peck
of
louder
pickled
as
the
peppers
police
questioned the suspect.
Therefore
he
was
exhausted.
continued—continued—continued—continued—continued—continued
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
Final Test page 3
12. Montresor
him so
13. Huck’s
14. Rip
wanted
long
father
Van
he
wanted
to
kill
Fortunato
for
having
insulted
ago.
nearly
Winkle
a
revenge
sat
15. Juliet
was
Capulet
16. After
the
townspeople
wear
the
letter
“A”
killed
him consequently
under
a
Romeo
accused
on
her
tree
was
and
a
Hester
he
Huck
fell
left
asleep
town
for
on
a
twenty
raft.
years.
Montague.
Prynne
of
adultery
they
made
her
chest.
III. ______ pts. Sentence Combining.
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
(Dorothy/she) wanted to see (the wizard/him).
(Dorothy/she) wanted to find a way back to Kansas.
(The witch/she) wanted to destroy (Dorothy/her).
The scarecrow wanted to be given some brains.
The cowardly lion wanted to be given some courage.
(Dorothy/she) poured water on the (witch/her).
(The witch/she) melted into a puddle.
They thought (the wizard/he) was a great and powerful man.
(The wizard/he) was just a cheap carnival magician.
(Dorothy/she) woke up.
(Dorothy/she) realized it was all a dream.
(The wizard/he) gave (Dorothy/her) a task to perform.
(Dorothy/she) must bring back the broomstick of the wicked witch of the West.
For each of the patterns listed below, chose two Wizard of Oz sentences and combine them into a
single sentence. You’ll also need to choose from the list of conjunctions, subordinate
conjunctions, and conjunctive adverbs; don’t use any of these words more than once.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
SV+,C SV+.
SV+,C SV+.
SV+SC.
SC, SV+.
SV+;CA, SV+.
SV+;CA, SV+.
SV+; SV+.
SV+: SV+.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
ANSWERS AND SAMPLE ANSWERS
Some of the materials in this book could prove to be difficult for your students, depending on the
ability level of the class or classes with which you use these materials. With the more difficult
exercises, consider working together with your class in completing some, most, or all of any
given assignment.
PP #1—ANSWERS
Remember: By identifying the V+, the student is actually identifying the complete predicate, not
the simple verb.
S
V+
,
1. The man
sold his watch
,
S
V+
,
2. Goldilocks tasted the porridge ,
S
V+
,
3.
Hamlet
must kill Claudius ,
S
V+
,
4.
Hester was accused of adultery,
S
V+
,
5. Huck Finn decided to run away ,
S
V+
,
6.
It
was the best of times ,
C
and
C
but
C
or
C
so
C
for
C
yet
S
V+
the woman
cut off her hair.
S
V+
it
was too hot.
S
V+
his father
will not be avenged.
S
V+
she
sewed a scarlet “A” on her dress.
S
V+
his father
had tried to kill him.
S
V+
it
was the worst of times.
PP#2—SAMPLE ANSWERS
1. Anne Boleyn was convicted by Henry VIII of adultery, and she was beheaded.
2. Caligula appointed his horse to the senate, and he appointed his budgie to a cabinet position.
3. Cleopatra grieved at the news of Mark Antony’s death, and she killed herself by allowing an
asp to bite her.
4. Mount Vesuvius erupted, and it buried the city of Pompeii.
5. Copernicus argued that the earth moved around the sun, and he made a model of the solar
system that supported his theory.
6. Columbus landed in the New World in 1492, but Leif Ericson had already been there.
7. The English threatened to take over France, but Joan of Arc helped to drive them out.
8. The Fountain of Youth was supposedly somewhere in Florida, but Ponce de Leon was unable
to find it.
9. Ptolemy declared that the heavenly bodies all revolved around the earth, but Copernicus later
claimed that Ptolemy was wrong.
10. The Trojans felt safe inside the mighty walls of Troy, but the Greeks had a little surprise in
store for them.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP#3—ANSWERS
1. Leonid Brezhnev seized leadership of the Soviet party in 1964, and he invaded
Czechoslovakia in 1968.
2. Fidel Castro helped lead a communist revolution, and he became the leader of Cuba.
3. Winston Churchill flashed the V for Victory sign, and he said, “I have nothing to offer but
blood, toil, tears, and sweat.”
4. Captain James Cook established the first European colony in Australia, and he was the first
European to visit Hawaii.
5. Henry Stanley found the long-missing explorer and said, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
6. Adolf Eichmann escaped capture at the close of WWII but was hanged as a war criminal
fifteen years later in Israel.
7. Anne Frank was found by Nazis and was killed in a concentration camp in 1944.
8. Gandhi taught India the methods of passive resistance and helped his people gain
independence from the British.
PP#4—SAMPLE ANSWERS
1. The Gestapo might just ask you some questions, or they might take you away to a
concentration camp.
2. The German soldiers might think they look pretty good while they goosestep, or they might
think they look kind of silly.
3. Mikhail Gorbachev will be remembered as the man who introduced capitalism into the
Soviet Union, or he will be remembered as a man with a huge birthmark on his head.
4. A Japanese kamikaze was a brave fighter pilot, or he was a bona fide fool.
5. Emperor Hirohito decided to surrender, for he didn’t want another atomic bomb dropped on
his country.
6. Thousands of people flocked to the Klondike in the 1890’s, for gold had been discovered
there.
7. Louis XIV was known as the Sun King, for he lived in great splendor.
8. The United States decided to enter WWI, for a German submarine had sunk the Lusitania.
9. Marie Antoinette knew that the French people were hungry, yet she had nothing better to say
than “Let them eat cake.”
10. Napoleon had conquered much of Europe, yet he lost two-thirds of his army while attempting
to invade Russia.
11. The Puritans came to America to find freedom, yet they allowed little freedom among their
own people.
12. Sir Walter Raleigh brought tobacco from the New World back to England, yet he didn’t even
smoke.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP#4—SAMPLE ANSWERS (CONTINUED)
13. The Germans underestimated the ferocity of a Russian winter, so they were soundly thrashed.
14. The Titanic rammed into an iceberg, so it sank.
15. The Vietnam War was an unpopular one, so more and more people were emboldened to
protest.
16. Lech Walesa and his Solidarity party helped to unite Polish laborers, so the strength of the
Communist party was weakened.
PP #5—ANSWERS
1. Davy Crockett did not live through the battle at the Alamo, nor did he live long enough to see
Texas gain its independence from Mexico.
2. The American South was not in favor of abolitionism, nor did it win the Civil War.
3. John Wilkes Booth was not a Union supporter, nor was he a fan of the theater.
4. The Native Americans who boarded the British ship were not really Native Americans, nor
were they really interested in having a tea party.
5. John Brown was not successful in his raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, nor did he
live to hear the song about his body a-mold’ring in the grave.
PP #6—ANSWERS WILL VARY
COMPOUND SENTENCE PRACTICE TEST/STUDY SHEET—SAMPLE ANSWERS
Suggestion: Work through this practice test with the class.
Note: The might in #1 makes that sentence better suited for use with or; the not in #2 makes that
sentence better suited for use with nor. Your students need to be aware of this, for they will
encounter a similar situation on the test.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Leonardo might eat a pizza, or he might eat some quiche.
Leonardo did not eat a pizza, nor did he eat any crazy bread.
Leonardo ate a pizza, and he regretted it.
Leonardo ate a pizza, but he was still hungry.
Leonardo ate a pizza, yet he didn’t tip the delivery boy.
Leonardo ate a pizza, so he had gas.
Leonardo ate a pizza, for he was hungry.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
COMPOUND SENTENCE TEST
I. ANSWERS
1. What is a compound sentence? Two sentences joined together by a conjunction.
2. List the seven conjunctions. (FANBOYS) for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
3. Explain the difference between a compound sentence and a compound verb. A compound
sentence contains two pairs of subjects and verbs.—AND—A compound verb is one subject
with two verbs; it’s missing the second subject.—AND—A compound sentence is
punctuated with a comma; a compound verb gets no comma.
II. SAMPLE ANSWERS
Note: Or should be used with #3; nor must be used with #4.
1. The North won the Civil War, and they’re going to Disneyland.
2. The North won the Civil War, but they didn’t win the Super Bowl.
3. The North will win the Civil War, or they will win the lottery.
4. The South did not win the Civil War, nor did they win the War of 1812.
5. The North won the Civil War, yet they failed to make the finals.
6. The North won the Civil War, so they were given a huge trophy.
7. The North won the Civil War, for they had the better coaching staff.
PP #7—ANSWERS
1. After Jonathan Edwards gave his Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God sermon, many New
Englanders were frightened of going to hell.
2. Although Abraham Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation, the life of a slave in
the South was not much improved.
3. As Robert E. Lee entered Appomattox Court House, Ulysses S. Grant greeted him.
4. Nathan Hale said, “I only regret that I have one life to lose for my country” as if he could live
twice.
5. No one will be able to interfere with another’s freedom of religion, speech, assembly, or
press as long as the First Amendment is upheld.
6. Eighty thousand prospectors flocked to California in 1849 because gold had been discovered
at Sutter’s Fort.
PP #8—ANSWERS
1. Before he was hanged in 1776, Nathan Hale said, “I only regret that I have but one life to
lose for my country.”
2. Nathan Hale said, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country” before he was
hanged in 1776.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #8—ANSWERS (CONTINUED)
3. If he had not accepted Aaron Burr’s challenge to a duel, Alexander Hamilton would have
lived longer.
4. Alexander Hamilton would have lived longer if he had not accepted Aaron Burr’s challenge
to a duel.
5. Since he is so honest, Lincoln is sometimes referred to as “honest Abe.”
6. Lincoln is sometimes referred to as “honest Abe” since he is so honest.
7. So that the American colonists would be stirred to revolt against the British, Patrick Henry
said, “Give me liberty or give me death!”
8. Patrick Henry said, “Give me liberty or give me death!” so that the American colonists would
be stirred to revolt against the British.
9. Though he might have gotten his rear end soundly thrashed, George Washington told the
truth about the cherry tree.
10. George Washington told the truth about the cherry tree though he might have gotten his rear
end soundly thrashed.
PP #9—SAMPLE ANSWERS
Note: Often within each sentence pair, the subject and its accompanying pronoun must trade
places; students should see that movement from the sentence to the subordinate clause, or vice
versa, can necessitate this trading places.
1. Till Lewis and Clark charted a trail through the Pacific Northwest, no one could see the
Trailblazers play basketball.
2. No one could see the Trailblazers play basketball till Lewis and Clark charted a trail through
the Pacific Northwest.
3. Unless Pocahontas throws herself on Captain John Smith, he will be killed by Powhatan.
4. Captain John Smith will be killed by Powhatan unless Pocahontas throws herself on him.
5. When George Washington crossed the Delaware, the people fishing on the shore stopped to
watch.
6. The people fishing on the shore stopped to watch when George Washington crossed the
Delaware.
7. While Henry David Thoreau built his shack, the loon played on Walden Pond.
8. The loon played on Walden Pond while Henry David Thoreau built his shack.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #10—ANSWERS WILL VARY
Note: Students will need the list of subordinating conjunctions from which to choose. They could
get the list from PP #7, from the Coordinating and Subordinating Summary Sheet, or perhaps
you could simply put the list on the board.
PP #11—ANSWERS AND SAMPLE ANSWERS
Note: Multiple correct answers are possible for much of PP #11. Here is one possible solution for
each, but be open to other choices, both in choice of conjunction and in arrangement of sentence.
1. Though the Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs, they failed in their attempt to overthrow
Fidel Castro.
2. Lizzie Borden is remembered as an axe murderer although she was found not guilty of her
crime.
3. When Teddy Roosevelt said the United States should “speak softly and carry a big stick,” he
became known for big stick diplomacy.
4. After the Supreme Court heard the case of Brown versus the Board of Education, it ruled that
segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
5. His real name was William Cody, but people called him Buffalo Bill.
6. Confederate supporters were not allowed to hold office after the Civil War, so carpetbaggers
from the North were sent to the South.
7. These politicians from the North arrived in the South with only a single carpetbag, for they
didn’t plan on staying very long.
8. Jimmy Carter was a peanut farmer, yet he became the president of the United States.
COMPLEX SENTENCE PRACTICE TEST/STUDY SHEET— SAMPLE ANSWERS
Suggestion: Work through this practice test with the class.
1. Richard Byrd flew over the North Pole as the penguins looked up in wonder.
2. Muhammad Ali floats like a butterfly before he stings like a bee.
3. Because he underestimated the determination of the Native Americans, General Custer was
killed at Little Bighorn.
4. After he popped a Monkees cassette into the deck, Edward Kennedy drove his car off the
bridge.
COMPLEX SENTENCE TEST— SAMPLE ANSWERS
I.
1. What is a complex sentence? There are two different correct answers. You may pick
either one:
a) Two sentences joined by a subordinating conjunction.
b) A sentence that can stand alone plus a subordinate clause.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
COMPLEX SENTENCE TEST— SAMPLE ANSWERS (CONTINUED)
2. What is a subordinate clause? A sentence with a subordinating conjunction added to the
front. Because of the subordinating conjunction that has been added to the front, it can
now no longer stand by itself.
3. There are two ways to form a complex sentence. What are they? By placing a subordinate
clause before a sentence, or by placing a subordinate clause after a sentence.
II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Clara Barton founded the Red Cross because so many soldiers died during the Civil War.
Buses in the South were segregated until the Freedom Riders protested this segregation.
Billy the Kid shot the sheriff although he did not shoot the deputy.
William Randolph Hearst built Hearst Castle after he had amassed a fortune in the newspaper
business.
When the train’s brakes failed, Casey Jones bravely stayed at the train’s controls.
Before he could complete his first term as President, John F. Kennedy was assassinated in
1963.
While the dolphins frolicked, Charles Lindbergh flew across the Atlantic Ocean.
Though Richard Nixon resigned from the presidency, he was later sent as an ambassador to
China.
BONUS ASSIGNMENT: COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES—ANSWERS WILL VARY
PP #12— SAMPLE ANSWERS
1. Many people in 1867 thought it was foolish for the United States to pay seven million dollars
for Alaska; besides, it was so cold there.
2. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941; consequently, the United States
entered WWII.
3. Baseball was an all-white sport until 1947; finally, Jackie Robinson was allowed to play for
the Dodgers.
4. The United States allows the existence of racist organizations; for example, the Ku Klux
Klan has been in existence since just after the Civil War.
5. Martin Luther King believed that the United States should put an end to racial segregation;
furthermore, he envisioned a world in which all people would live in harmony.
6. Robert Kennedy had high hopes of winning the democratic presidential nomination in 1968;
however, he was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan.
7. Ronald Reagan could not remember being told about selling arms to Iran; in fact, he could
not remember ever having made Bedtime for Bonzo.
8. Sioux warriors overwhelmed the U.S. cavalry at the battle of Little Bighorn; later, the Sioux
were either killed or confined to the reservation.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #13— SAMPLE ANSWERS
1. The United States entered World War II to retaliate for the bombing of Pearl Harbor;
moreover, the U.S. felt the need to combat Nazis in Germany.
2. Many American scientists warned the American government against using the atomic bomb;
nevertheless, President Truman decided to drop the bomb on Hiroshima.
3. Hitler decided that the Semitic people were responsible for Germany’s problems; next, he
began restricting them to ghettos.
4. For much of the twentieth century the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in a
cold war; now, the Soviet Union has opened up its borders to Western ways and ideas.
5. Many of our leaders believe that we must always work to maintain a balance of power among
the nations of the world; otherwise, we might find ourselves in another world war.
6. Thoreau, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King have shown the world how to combat injustice
with civil disobedience; still, groups like the Irish Republican Army persist in trying to solve
their problems with violence.
7. The Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989; then, pieces of it were sold all over the world at
exorbitant prices.
8. The boat people would be imprisoned or killed if they were returned to their native land;
therefore, the benevolent U.S. government allowed them to stay.
PP #14— SAMPLE ANSWERS
1. The government requires many companies to be affirmative action employers; these
companies must hire a certain percentage of women and minorities.
2. The Alaskan pipeline begins in Prudhoe Bay; it ends at the port of Valdez.
3. The American Legion is the largest organization of American veterans; it includes veterans
from WWI, WWII, Korea, and Vietnam.
4. Arson is the crime of setting fire to another’s property; larceny is the crime of stealing.
5. Busing is one solution to segregated schools; it allows for schools to be more racially diverse.
6. A capital offense is a crime so serious that it could result in the death penalty; murder is an
example of a capital offense.
7. The electric chair is one form of capital punishment; being told by the administration to do
crowd control during a pep rally is another.
8. CIA stands for Central Intelligence Agency; CSNY stands for Crosby, Stills, Nash, and
Young.
9. Being a conscientious objector is one means of avoiding military service; refusing to be a
puppet in an unconstitutional standing army is another.
10. The Eighth Amendment to the Constitution prohibits cruel and unusual punishment; the First
Amendment guarantees freedom of assembly, press, religion, and speech.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #15—SAMPLE ANSWERS
1. G.I. Joe won the Congressional Medal of Honor: he threw his body on a land mine.
2. Ross Perot was the dark horse: no one expected him to win the election.
3. Happy’s Bun-n-Run is an equal opportunity employer: they would pay anyone minimum
wage.
4. Homer exercised his First Amendment rights: he organized a country line dancing party in
the center of a public park.
5. Iris was charged with larceny: she took a 1975 Pacer from Violet’s driveway.
6. Percival was charged with libel: he said that Gawain was known to open the back door at
theaters to let his friends in for free.
7. Henrietta was charged with a misdemeanor: a Bee Gees eight track was found in her purse.
8. Fozzie went through the process of naturalization: he learned all the words to “Born in the
U.S.A.”
9. Moondoggie looked a lot like Uncle Sam: he wore a billy-goat beard and a red, white, and
blue hat.
PP #16--ANSWERS
1. b
2. e
3. f
4. a
5. j
6. h
7. i
8. g
9. d
10. c
PP #17
1. c
2. b
3. a
4. a
5. b
6. b
7. c
8. b
9. c
10. a
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
PP #18—SAMPLE ANSWERS
1. After Johnny had stabbed the Soc, after Dally had given them money and a gun, Ponyboy
and Johnny hopped aboard the train for Windrixville.
2. Because the Socs had beaten him badly, because his friend Ponyboy was close to being
drowned, Johnny stabbed the Soc.
3. The boys tried to reach Dally before he snapped, before he did something foolish.
4. The children might have burned inside the church if Johnny and Ponyboy had not saved
them, if Johnny and Ponyboy had not shown courage.
5. Though he liked classic movies, though he did well in school, though he had a good heart,
Ponyboy was still labeled a hood.
6. Until the night of the rumble, until the greasers had whipped the Socs, until the moment
when the Socs turned and ran to their cars, the greasers had to be careful when they walked
the streets.
7. Unless Ponyboy writes his composition, unless Ponyboy works all night, unless Ponyboy
writes The Outsiders, he’ll fail English.
8. While the drive-in movie was rolling, while Two Bit was at the snack bar, while Dally was
stealing Tim Shepard’s tires, Ponyboy and Cherry Valance got to know each other.
PP #19--ANSWERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
c
a
b
a
c
b
b
a
PP #20—ANSWERS WILL VARY
BONUS ASSIGNMENT:
COORDINATING AND SUBORDINATING WITH CUMULATIVE SENTENCES
I. ANSWERS
SC,AP,SV+,PP—AP—PP,PP
S—PP,AB—V+;CS,RC,V+
PP,PP,AB,SV+;CA,SV+,CSV+,RC
PP,SV+,AP;CAS,RC,V+
S,AB,V+SC;S,PP,V+,AP
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
BONUS ASSIGNMENT: (CONTINUED)
II. SAMPLE ANSWERS—The following sentences are taken from the poems of Emily
Dickinson.
1. Looking through my window, I like to see it lap the miles; and the train, the iron horse, stops
at its own stable door.
2. Hope, which is the thing with feathers, perches in the soul; yet never in extremity it asked a
crumb of me.
3. A narrow fellow in the grass occasionally rides; you may have seen him, his belly sliding
along the ground, his tail rattling, his tongue darting in and out of his mouth.
4. Success is counted sweetest by those who ne’er succeed; the soldier—defeated by the enemy,
dying on the battlefield—can truly tell the meaning of victory.
5. Slipping into death, I heard a fly buzz; moreover, the fly, which flew with an uncertain
stumbling buzz, interposed between the light and me.
6. I could not stop for Death, the driver of the carriage; therefore, Death, who knew no haste,
kindly stopped for me.
7. After the soul selects its own society, it shuts the door, closing the valves of its attention like
stone.
8. His coat of elemental brown blending in with the brown of the road, the little stone, which
rambles in the road alone, fulfills the decree of God because it is happy to be a stone, the
creation of the Almighty.
FINAL TEST: PRACTICE TEST/STUDY SHEET—ANSWERS AND SAMPLE ANSWERS
Suggestion: Work through this practice test with the class.
I. The punctuation marks (or lack thereof) must be used to determine the category of
conjunction from which to choose. In many cases, more than one correct answer exists.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(choose a conjunction) but, yet
(choose a conjunctive adverb) consequently, therefore
(choose a subordinating conjunction) because
(choose a subordinating conjunction) after, because, when
(there’s no comma after the blank, so choose a conjunction) but, yet
II. Just the words before the punctuation marks are listed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Scrooge,
Tybalt; therefore,
rich;
rich:
albatross,
NONE
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
FINAL TEST: PRACTICE TEST/STUDY SHEET—ANSWERS AND SAMPLE ANSWERS
(CONTINUED)
7. wise;
8. NONE (only a compound verb)
9. me.
10. cupboard. Nevertheless,
11. ride; however,
III. One answer will be given, but be open to other possible solutions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Hamlet wanted to kill Claudius, for Claudius had killed his father.
Claudius had killed Hamlet’s father; therefore, he wandered the castle as a ghost.
Claudius had killed Hamlet’s father; he had married Hamlet’s mother.
Claudius was an evil man: he had killed Hamlet’s father.
Because Hamlet’s mother did not know the cup of wine was poisoned, she drank it.
Hamlet did not have the courage to kill Claudius although Claudius had killed his father.
FINAL TEST—ANSWERS AND SAMPLE ANSWERS
I. The punctuation marks (or lack thereof) must be used to determine the category of
conjunction from which to choose. In many cases, more than one correct answer exists.
1. later, next, then
2. but, yet
3. after, because (though/although if Casey plays for the other team, but that’s stretching it)
4. after, because, since, when
5. as, when, while
6. for
7. so
8. so that
9. consequently, in fact, next, then
10. if
II. Just the words before the punctuation marks are listed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
wall; however,
sea;
NONE
small,
NONE
trouble:
bread,
day;
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller
FINAL TEST—ANSWERS AND SAMPLE ANSWERS (CONTINUED)
9. river.
10. NONE
11. peppers.
12. revenge:
13. him; consequently,
14. tree,
15. Capulet;
16. adultery.
III. SAMPLE ANSWERS (Be open to other possibilities.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Dorothy wanted to see the wizard, for she wanted to find her way back to Kansas.
Dorothy poured water on the witch, and she melted into a puddle.
Dorothy wanted to see the wizard because she wanted to find a way back to Kansas.
When Dorothy woke up, she realized it was all a dream.
Dorothy wanted to find a way back to Kansas; therefore, she wanted to see the wizard.
They thought the wizard was a great and powerful man; however, he was just a cheap
carnival magician.
7. The scarecrow wanted to be given some brains; the cowardly lion wanted to be given some
courage.
8. The wizard gave Dorothy a task to perform: she must bring back the broomstick of the
wicked witch of the West.
Pro Prose II: Coordinating and Subordinating
1993 David Moeller