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PACKET 9: Evolution
Bio.3.4 Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection as a mechanism for how species
change over time.
 Bio.3.4.1 Explain how fossil, biochemical, and anatomical evidence support the theory of
 Bio.3.4.2 Explain how natural selection influences the changes in species over time.
natural selection
natural selection
geographic isolation
acquired characteristics
vestigial structures
homologous structures
survival of the fittest
Evodots Evolution Lab…………………………………………..
Thumbs Up for Evolution…………………………………………
Evidence for Evolution worksheet………………………………
Packet 9 Test……………………………………………………
Honors Only
 Webquest…………………………………………………………..
 Online Review……………………………………………………..
Packet 9 Test……………………………………………………..
Due Dates:
What Darwin Never Knew – Great video on Evolution
Abiogenesis vs. biogenisis
________________________________ – early theory that life came from non-life
o Ex:___________________________________________________________
________________________________ – life from preexisting life
Prior Knowledge:
 Miller & Urey conducted an experiment. Describe the
purpose of this experiment.
Explain the Endosymbiosis Theory.
Page 1
Evolution of Life - the order of their suspected appearance on Earth)
The first life forms: Were they?
Circle one of the pairs of terms below
Autotrophic (make own food – plants) or
Heterotrophic (must obtain food – animals)
Aerobic (used oxygen)
Anaerobic (did not use oxygen)
What chemical process occurred that
allowed there to be aerobic organisms?
Based on the info from the table – list the order of organisms as they appeared on Earth.
Early Earth – Place the following items in correct order by numbering 1-9
_______Earth is formed with toxic gases, water vapor, and no oxygen
_______Eukaryotic cells (more complex cells with a nucleus) form through
_______Earth’s surface cools and water vapor forms oceans as it rains
_______Simple organic molecules such as amino acids and carbohydrates form
from the thunderstorms
_______Protocells (non-living groups of molecules) form and contain RNA
_______Photosynthetic prokaryotes form adding oxygen to the atmosphere
_______Ozone (O3) layer forms from atmospheric oxygen to protect Earth
_______Multicellular eukaryotes form
_______Prokaryotic cells form. Prokaryotes are simple cells that include
Page 2
Theories of Evolution (Lamark versus Darwin)
In its most basic terms, the theory of evolution states that species ________________ over
I. Lamarck – Use Disuse Hypothesis or Passing on of Acquired Characteristics
Summarize how Lamark believes the giraffe got its
long neck.
What is wrong with the inheritance of acquired
traits hypothesis?
Darwin – Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
______________ _______________ Organisms with useful traits survive,
reproduce, and pass those traits to their
Summarize how Darwin believes the giraffe got its long neck.
Darwin described this as ___________________________________. The term fitness
in an evolutionary sense is a measure of an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce
more offspring that can in turn survive and to reproduce.
Cause & Effect Model for Evolution by Natural Selection:
***** ______________ mutate ----______________ are selected ----_____________ evolve***
Page 3
Microevolution vs. Macroevolution
 small genetic changes in the gene pool of a population
__________________ ____________ – all the alleles in
a population (look at the # of A’s vs. the # of a’s)
3 types of natural selection that causes changes in
gene pool:
o ____________________ ___________________ – “it
pays to be different” – individuals with traits at one end
are more common than midrange forms Ex:
peppered moths
o ___________________ __________________ – “it
pays to be average” – eliminates individuals on both
ends of the range and favors midrange individuals Ex:
birth weights
o ________________________ or _______________
________________________ – both ends of the
range are favored and those in the middle are
reduced. Ex: finch beaks
Changing Environments Select for Specific Genetic Phenotypes:
Before the Industrial Revolution the trunks of certain trees were a light color. The lighter
peppered moths had an advantage over the darker moths. The lighter moths were more likely
to ________________________________________ so there were more of them in the
population. However, with the Industrial Revolution came ______________________. The
trees turned dark. Now the darker moths had the advantage. Adaptations are dependent
upon the environment.
Light and dark forms of the
peppered moth were
photographed against the
lichen-covered trunk of a
tree in an unpolluted area of
The light and dark peppered
moths are now photographed
against the trunk of an oak tree
blackened by the polluted air of
Birmingham, England.
Page 4
Macroevolution - How new species are formed
______________________________ – changes in a species so a new species is
_________________________________ can lead to the
formation of New Species
Sometimes organisms of the same species become
physically separated. The evolution of separate species is
largely due to genetic drift (chance). After a long period of
time even if the two groups were to meet back up the
organisms may refuse to mate. At this point they would be
considered separate species. When one species becomes 2
separate species this is called
Types of Evolution
____________________________ – changes in genetic
composition of one species in response to change in another Ex:
flowers & pollinators
___________________________ - the changing of
organisms to fit new environments.
_______________________ - accumulation of differences between
groups which can lead to the formation of new species
__________________________ - organisms that are not
closely related evolve similar traits due to living in similar
Page 5
___________________________ - random changes in
allels of a gene pool due to chance. Affects smaller
populations more.
2 Models for evolution:
_________________________ - gradual change over time leads to species formation
___________________ ___________________ – evolution occurs in spurts in which
there are periods of rapid change in a species followed by periods of little or no change
( usually do to major environmental changes
Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance:
Antibiotics used only when needed and as directed usually overwhelm the bacteria. Too much
antibiotic use selects for more resistant mutants. When patients cut short the full course of
drugs, the resistant strains have a chance to multiply and spread.
Page 6
Evidence for Evolution:
1. Fossil Evidence - Fossils show patterns of development
_______________________________________ – fossils found deeper down in the
strata (rock layers) are older than those found closer to the top.
The fossil record shows transitional forms of organisms or how organisms have
changed over time.
2. Anatomical structures
a. __________________________________
– structures that are present in an organism
but reduced in size or have less important
function (Ex: wings in flightless birds, hind
limbs in whales)
b. ____________________________________ – structures that share a common
ancestry (similar structure but different functions) Ex: human arm, bat wing, whales
Page 7
Molecular Evidence for Evolution
1. If species change over time then genes have also changed (DNA fingerprinting)
________________________ _______________ – a species from which 2 or
more species have diverged
2. Scientists look at _________________ and ___________________. The more
similar the DNA or protein sequence, between 2 different organisms, the more
recently they shared a common ancestor.
3. ______________________ & ______________________ ___________ – show
how organisms are related through evolution
In the cladogram on the left, the
greater the evolutionary distance
from humans, the greater the
number of amino acid differences in
the hemoglobin protein
4. ______________________________ development shows common ancestry – similarities
in early development show similar genes are at work
Page 8