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14-1 “Church Reform and the Crusades”
The Age of Faith
Spiritual Revival
Starting in the 900s, ________________ help bring about a spiritual revival
______________ help restore and expand Church power
Problems in the Church
Some Church officials _________ even though the Church objects
Some officials practice ___________—selling religious offices
Kings use ____________________ to appoint bishops
Reformers believe only the Church should appoint bishops
Reform and Church Organization
Starting in the 1100s, _____________ reorganize the Church like a kingdom
Pope’s ______________ make Church laws; diplomats __________
throughout Europe
Church collects tithes; uses money to care for _________ or __________
New Religious Orders
__________________ and _______________ orders form
Friars in these orders vow _____________; travel and preach to the poor
Some new orders for women are founded
Cathedrals—Cities of God
Early Cathedrals
Between 800-1100, churches are built in __________________ style
Style includes thick walls and pillars, _______ windows, _________ arches
A New Style of Church Architecture
_____________ style evolves around 1100; term from Germanic tribe, Goths
Gothic style has large, _______ windows for more light; ___________ arches
Churches have _______________ glass windows, many sculptures
About ___________ Gothic churches are built from 1170 to 1270
The Crusades
The Crusades: The Beginning
In 1093, Byzantine emperor asks for help fighting the Turks
Pope Urban II issues a call for a _____________—a “holy war”
Goals of the Crusades
Pope wants to reclaim _________________ and reunite Christianity
Kings use Crusades to send away ___________ who cause ______________
_________________ sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting
Later, __________ join Crusades to try to gain ____________ through trade.
First Crusade: 1096-1099
Pope promises Crusaders who ____________ a place in ______________
First Crusade: three armies gather at _______________________ in 1097
Crusaders capture Jerusalem in 1099
Captured lands along coast divided into ___________ Crusader states
Second Crusade: 1147-1148
Muslims take back Edessa in 1144; Second crusade __________ to retake it
In 1187, __________—Muslim leader and Kurdish warrior—retakes Jerusalem
14-1 “Church Reform and the Crusades”
The Third Crusade: 1189-1192
One is ______________________________________—king of England
The Third Crusade was led by three powerful rulers
______________ of France ___________ Crusade after arguing with Richard
The argument was over Richard breaking off an engagement with Phillip’s
_____________ of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) _____________ during
the journey
In 1192 Richard and Saladin make _____________ after many battles
________________ keeps Jerusalem but allows ____________ pilgrims to
enter the city
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
Fourth Crusade (1200-1204)
Crusaders sack the Christian city Zara and are _______________________
by the pope for it.
The Venetian leadership keeps their excommunication a _______________.
Then Crusaders sack Constantinople in 1204
Two other Crusades strike Egypt, but fail to weaken the Muslims
The Children’s Crusade
The traditional story says that in 1212 thousands of children possibly
_________ or are _____________ in a failed crusade.
But these stories are surrounded by legend and fiction. The fact that this
really happened is __________________.
A Spanish Crusade
Most of Spain controlled by ________________, a Muslim people
Christians fight __________________—drive Muslims from Spain, 1100-1492
Spain has Inquisition—court to suppress ____________________; expels
The Effects of the Crusades
Crusades show ______________ of Church in convincing thousands to fight
________________ who stay home manage the estate and business affairs
Merchants expand ___________, bring back many goods from Southwest Asia
Failure of later crusades _____________ pope and nobles, ________________
Crusades create lasting ___________________ between Muslims and Christians