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NAME ________________________________________________ DATE_________________ CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION PART 1 Below is the chemical equation for Cellular Respiration. 1. What are the reactants of cellular respiration? 2. What are the products of cellular respiration? 3. How many molecules of oxygen are consumed? 4. What is the form of energy produced from cellular respiration (hint: 3 letter acronym)? 5. Why does cellular respiration occur in multiple steps? Below is an overview of cellular respiration. 6. How many stages/steps are there in cellular respiration? 7. What are the names of these stages/steps? Below is the same diagram from the Chapter 8 module representing the release of energy from ATP. 8. Since cellular respiration is “making” ATP, how could you represent the production of ATP in the diagram above (draw it in)? 9. Does the production of ATP release or require energy? Below is an overview of cellular respiration. 10. Where does glycolysis occur? 11. What is the reactant for glycolysis? 12. What are the 3 products of glycolysis? Below is a detailed diagram of glycolysis. The black circles represent carbon atoms and the yellow circles represent phosphate groups. 13. How many carbons are in the reacting molecule of glucose? 14. Before the glucose molecule is split, what is added to the glucose? 15. Where do these molecules come from? 16. After the glucose molecule is split, how many carbons are in each new molecule? 17. How many phosphates are in each new molecule after the spit? 18. NADH is an electron carrier (just like NADPH in photosynthesis). In the diagram, you will notice that NAD+ in converted into NADH. What subatomic particle does NADH pick up at this point? 19. During the process of NADH picking up this subatomic particle, what is added to the substrate (PGAL)? 20. In the last steps of glycolysis, ATP is formed from ADP. Where does the extra phosphate group come from? 21. How many ATP are formed from one glucose molecule? 22. How many “net” ATP are formed in glycolysis (hint: some are used in the first part)? 23. Where do the NADH carry their extra electrons to (look back at the overview diagram)? 24. How many carbons are in each of the final pyruvate molecules? Below is a diagram representing the production of NADH from NAD+. 25. What is the name of the enzyme that aids this process? 26. What atom provides the extra electrons for this process? 27. Where do these atoms come from (hint: C6H12O6)? Below is a diagram showing what will occur if oxygen is present or not. 28. If oxygen is present, where does the pyruvate go? 29. If oxygen is not present, the pyruvate is converted into either of what two molecules? 30. What is the process called that occurs if oxygen is not present? Below is an illustration of lactic acid fermentation. The first part of the diagram shows the process of glycolysis and the second part shows lactic acid formation. Pyruvic acid is also known as pyruvate. 31. If oxygen is not present, the pyruvate do not enter into the mitochondria nor do the NADH formed during glycolysis. What is the function of forming lactic acid (hint: it has something to do with the NADH molecules)? 32. When oxygen becomes present, the blue arrow above is reversed and lactic acid is converted back to ______________________ where it will then enter the mitochondria. 33. What feeling do you get when lactic acid fermentation occurs in your muscles? 34. How do we humans take advantage of the fermentation conducted by some microorganisms?