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Transcript
Bellringer
 Get out a piece of scrap paper
 Label 1-5
What is anaerobic?
Anaerobic byproduct in animals is
Anaerobic byproduct in plants is
What organisms are usually
anaerobic?
Why is aerobic better than
anaerobic?
Cellular Respiration
AP conference
 Good news
 I’m doing almost everything right!
 Looking at statistics for college completion rates you
are in a good place to succeed at school
AP conference
 Bad news
 Starting next 9 weeks
 Late work is a 0
 No retests
 All homework is graded for accuracy – trying isn’t good
enough
 If you are in a sport or club – plan accordingly
 College and the real world don’t care what else you are
doing – they want results
 All retests due by 11/2/2012
AP Conference
 Ask for help now
 You are in a sport – great – why does that mean you get an
advantage with due dates and test scores?
 Some of you are ready for college – most arent
 Time management
 Responsibility
 Step up – you’re better than what you are giving me
What is cellular respiration?
 The creation of energy (ATP)
 This “creation” requires sugar (food) and sometimes
oxygen
 Your body breaks down the food and creates ATP
Review
 Metabolic pathways –
these are enzymes that
are near each other and
work as an assembly line
A bigger metabolic pathway
OH COME ON MAN
I’m done. Broken. Stahp.
Review
 First law of thermodynamics – energy can’t be
created or destroyed – only transformed
 Second law of thermodynamics – when energy is
transformed some is always lost (heat, friction, drag,
etc.)
What is ATP?





Adenisone Triphosphate
It is a nucleic acid
It is usable energy
It has 3 phosphates
All the energy you use
comes from the bond
between the 2nd and 3rd
phosphates
What is ADP?
 Adenisone Diphosphate
 Exactly the same as ATP
except it is missing a
phosphate
 It is a “spent” battery
 We must recharge it into
ATP
Enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and
your brain just melted
 The equation is ∆G = ∆H – T∆S




Delta G = free energy
Delta H = enthalpy (total available energy)
Delta S = entropy (randomness in a system)
T = temperature in kelvin
 Delta G must be negative to happen spontaneously
 <0
 Delta G that is 0 or higher must have energy added to complete
 Endergonic – nonspontaneous and requires free
energy – delta G ≥ 0
 The delta G is the amount of energy required to start the
reaction
 Exergonic – spontaneous and does not require free
energy – delta G < 0
 The delta G is the amount of work performed
Spontaneous or not? Exergonic or
Endergonic
 Delta G = -4
 Delta G = 0
 Delta G = 10
Make flashcards




Enthalpy
Entropy
Exergonic
Endergonic
So what?
 Energy coupling – pairing
an exergonic reaction
with an endergonic one
 ATP Degredation + an
enzyme = work done
Example
What organelle does this?
Mitochondria
Oxidation/Reduction reactions
 OILRIG
 Oxidation is a loss of an
electron
 Reduction is a gain of an
electron
 If something is oxidized it
becomes MORE POSITIVE
 If something is reduced it
becomes MORE
NEGATIVE
ex
Aerobic Respiration





How animals NORMALLY make ATP
Requires OXYGEN (aero)
C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H20 + 32ATP
Or
sugar + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP
 If your body can’t break down sugar or get oxygen YOU WILL DIE
 You need ~26ATP/glucose to survive – less than that = death
(eventually)
Anaerobic Respiration






We don’t die the moment we hold our breaths
Some bacteria can live their entire lives without oxygen
THIS DOES NOT MAKE ENOUGH ATP FOR US TO SURVIVE
Anaero = no oxygen
In animals - Glucose  8ATP + carbon dioxide + lactic Acid
In plants – Glucose  8 ATP + carbon dioxide + alcohol
Anaerobic respiration
(Fermentation)
 Lactic acid fermentation is why your legs burn when
you run, or why your arms burn after lifting. You are
using ATP faster than your body can bring in oxygen.
This causes you to switch to fermentation until more
oxygen gets there.
 This is how alcohol is made. In plants lactic acid isn’t
made – alcohol is.
Where does sugar come from?
 Animals + some bacteria = we eat it
 Plants + some bacteria = they make it
 Plants CAN NOT eat sugar – they make their own
 Autotrophs – they make their own food
 Heterotrophs – they eat something else for food
Photosynthesis
 Photosynthesis is how plants make their own sugar
from sunlight BEFORE going through aerobic
respiration
 PLANTS STILL GO THROUGH AEROBIC RESPIRATION
 6CO2 + 6H20  C6H12O6 + 6 O2
 Carbon dioxide + water  sugar + oxygen
Question
 Do plants use oxygen?
Answer
 Yes! They must still break down the sugar from
aerobic respiration
 C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H20 + 32ATP
 Don’t tell me plants don’t use oxygen on a test. It is
the college level of saying blood is blue
 PLANTS DON’T HAVE LUNGS I KNOWFRFGSDIJG
Questions
 Why do you die from…






A heart attack
Getting shot in the lung
Diabetes
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Drowning
A plant without sun
 You can answer all questions to a basic level now just
by looking at your formulas
 Heart attack – blood can’t flow to pick up oxygen –
without oxygen you can’t make ATP – you die
 Gunshot – If you are shot in the lungs they can’t bring in
oxygen – without oxygen you can’t make ATP – you die
 Diabetes – Your cells can’t get glucose inside of them – If
your cells can’t get glucose you can’t make ATP – you die
 Carbon monoxide poisoning – It blocks your blood from
picking up oxygen – if you can’t get oxygen you can’t make
ATP – you die
 Drowning – if you can’t get in oxygen you can’t make ATP
 Plant – no sunglight = no photosynthesis
Question
 Where does all food on this planet originally come
from?
Answer
 The sun!
 Sun lets plants make food  thing eat plants  we
eat things that eat plants
So how do we do it?
 ALL organisms go through the following stages
 Glycolysis – break down sugar
 Citric Acid cycle– make NADH
 Aerobic organisms then go through the:
 Electron transport chain
 Anaerobic organisms go through:
 Fermentation
Glycolysis
 Glyco – sugar
 Lysis – split/cut
 You put in
 Glucose
 2 ATP
 You get out:
 4 ATP
 2 pyruvate
 2 NADH
ATP here isn’t that important –
Pyruvate and NADH are
 Pyruvate is converted
into acetyl CoA and put
into the citric acid cycle
 You made 2 pyruvates so
you do the citric acid
cycle twice
Citric Acid Cycle
 OMG WHAT IS THAT
 You put in
 pyruvate
 You get out
 CO2
 8 NADH
 2 ATP
The electron transport chain
 Until this point we have
only made 4 ATP – we
need at least 22 more
 They all come from this
chain
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
NADH is split releasing an electron and an H+
ion
The electron acts as an activator and opens
the gated channel enzymes
When the enzymes open H+ is pumped out
This creates a concentration gradient – we
get more H+ on the outside than the inside
H+ wants to flow back in but the only way is
through an enzyme called ATP synthase
When H+ flows in it spins the enzyme which
adds a phosphate to ADP
This creates ATP
While this happens oxygen picks up the spent
electrons. If this fails to happen the enzymes
stay closed and H+ isn’t pumped out thus
shutting off ATP synthesis
Electron transport chain
Last of the notes
 Chemiosmosis – energy stored in a concentration
gradient of hydrogen ions drives the work of ATP
synthase – ADP + P  ATP
 Oxidative phosphorylation – NADH is oxidized (loses
electrons) so that ADP can be phosphorylated into
ATP