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Decline and Fall of Constantinople • The Byzantine Empire suffered constant attacks by invading armies especially those of Persia and Arabia. • During the mid 500s the bubonic plague hit the empire killing 10,000 a day at its peak. • By the late 1300’s the empire was reduced to Constantinople and part of Greece. • With the fall of Constantinople, Christian lands to the north were now open for Islamic attacks. The Rise of Islam Bedouins • Before Muhammad the Bedouins lived in tribes or clans. • Lived in the extreme conditions of the desert. • Ideals of courage and loyalty to family • Skilled warriors Mohammad Muhammad was born in Mecca , a trading and religious center, in 570 CE. – Muhammad was a devout man who often meditated on the moral ills of Meccan society – Muhammad became a prophet at age 40 (610 CE) – His teachings threatened merchants because he wanted to remove the idols from the Ka’aba – Mohammad led his followers to Yathrib (Medina). This journey is called the Hijrah (622 CE) • Muhammad and his followers defeated the people of Mecca and returned to there to dedicate the Ka’aba to Allah (630 CE) • Muhammad died in 632 CE . He had not named a successor to lead the community. • Eventually believers chose Abu Bakr to be the first caliph. • Under the first four caliphs the Muslim marched from victory to victory against the Byzantines and the Persians. 1. Create a timeline from 500 CE to 700 CE. 2. Put the following important dates on your timeline: • 630 CE Muhammad returned to Mecca • 622 CE Muhammad left Mecca for Yathrib • 632 CE Abu Bakr became the first caliph • 610 CE Muhammad becomes prophet • 570 CE Muhammad born • 632 CE Muhammad died Islamic Faith • Muslims do not believe priests are necessary to mediate between people and God. • Muslims gather in mosques to pray, but they may pray anywhere • Muslims duties include the jihad which means to struggle in God’s service • The Ka’aba is the physical and metaphorical center of Islam The Split between Sunnis and Shi’as Mediation Activity The Sunnis and Shi’as have decided to mend the schism in Islam. They want an outside group to consider the areas where they are in conflict and to recommend a course that could possibly be agreed upon by both sides. The members of your group have been chosen to mediate an agreement by weighing the beliefs of each group and recommend a solution. Teachings of Islam A. There is but one God (monotheism) and Muhammad is his messenger B. The Quran is the Holy Book of Islam. It is the sacred word of God as revealed to Muhammad. C. The Five Pillars of Islam 1. Faith – There is but one God, and Allah is his name. Muhammad was the last and greatest prophet 2. Prayer – Muslims face Mecca and pray five times a day 3. Alms – Muslims care for others by giving charity (alms) to the poor 4. Fasting – Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. 5. Hajj – Muslims must make a pilgrimage to pray at the Kaaba at Mecca at least once. Islamic Empires Umayyads • Lasted from 661-750. • Came to power following the death of Ali, the last of the “rightly guided” caliphs. • Abandoned the simple life of previous caliphs and began to surround themselves with wealth and ceremony. • Religious and political opposition led to the Umayyad downfall by rebel groups in 750. • The most powerful of the rebel groups were the Abbasids who took control. Abbasids • Lasted from750-1258 CE • Moved the capital of the Muslim Empire to Baghdad. The Abbasids controlled their large empire through a strong bureaucracy. • Sent diplomats to lands as far as Europe, Asia & Africa. • To support a large government structure the Abbasids taxed land, imports, exports & non-Muslims. • The Abbasid dynasty fell due to poor leadership, the Fatimid revolt, and because the Seljuks captured Baghdad and launched attacks on the Muslim Empire. Fatimids • The Fatimid caliphate was formed by Shi’a Muslims tracing their descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima. Islamic Achievements • Golden Age of Islam occurred during the reign of the Abbasids. • Developed the House of Wisdom to translate scientific and philosophical text in to Arabic. • Developed calligraphy or ornamental writing. • Comprehensive Books detailing medical treatments. • Used scientific observation and experimentation to make advances in Math and Science.