Download evolution notes

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Gene expression programming wikipedia, lookup

The Selfish Gene wikipedia, lookup

Sexual selection wikipedia, lookup

Speciation wikipedia, lookup

Theistic evolution wikipedia, lookup

Sociobiology wikipedia, lookup

Evolution of sexual reproduction wikipedia, lookup

Hologenome theory of evolution wikipedia, lookup

Organisms at high altitude wikipedia, lookup

Natural selection wikipedia, lookup

Genetic drift wikipedia, lookup

Saltation (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Genetics and the Origin of Species wikipedia, lookup

The eclipse of Darwinism wikipedia, lookup

Introduction to evolution wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
EVOLUTION
Who is Charles Darwin?
Where were the founding ideas of Evolution?
What is evolution?
Where are the Galapagos Islands?
“change
EVOLUTION
over time”
Well
tested and supported idea
You
do not have to agree with a theory
Evidence
THEORY
to support
 Born
Feb 12th, 1809
 England
 After
college visited many
continents as a part of the crew
on the HMS Beagle
 Naturalist
 Observed
diversity in organisms
CHARLES DARWIN
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xOl0tHVV6Ck
“characteristics of
many animals and
plants varied from
one island to the
next.” – Charles
Darwin
GALAPAGOS ISLANDS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKG2qH8778U
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FT3FU2XOgo
PEOPLE DIDN’T BELIEVE THAT THINGS
CHANGED…
WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH
CHARLES DARWIN AND EVOLUTION?
 Two
geologists who recognized that the Earth
changes
 Rocks
form/change slowly (rock cycle)
 Many
forces at work
 Proposed
that the Earth had to be older than
previously thought
CHARLES LYELL
JAMES HUTTON
1795
Present
events
events help to explain past
Processes
Change
are ongoing
does occur
CHARLES LYELL
JAMES HUTTON
1795
Can
living
organisms change
as well?
If
so…they would
change
slowly…over time
DARWIN CONSIDERS THIS…
 Early
theory of
evolution
 Species
descend
from others
 Living
things
change over time
LAMARCK
“selective use or disuse of
organs, organisms
acquired or lost traits in a
lifetime. Traits can be
passed to offspring…over
time this leads to a change
in a species.”
1)
Tendency
towards perfection
(birds want to fly)
2)
Use/Disuse (front
legs to wings)
3)
Inheritance of
acquired traits
LAMARCK’S PRINCIPLES
There
were issues
with Lamarck’s
principles…but it
was a start.
Adaptation
Inheritance
LAMARCK’S PRINCIPLES
Individual
differences among species…
NATURAL VARIATION
 Nature’s
own variations.
 Darwin
considered this
and decided that
species naturally have
genetic differences.
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Fitness-
ability of an
individual to survive and
reproduce
Adaptation-
inherited
(behavior or physical) trait
that increases an organisms
chance of survival.
FITNESS
ADAPTATION
 “Survival
of the fittest”- individuals that are
better suited for the environment are more
likely to survive and therefore reproduce
passing off genetic variances to their offspring.
NATURAL SELECTION
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMtT5_AQmLg
 Vestigial
 Fossil
organs
record
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OAfw3akpRe8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOKW_7KajCU
 Homologous
body
 Geographic
distribution
structures
of species
EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
 Galapagos
finches
 Individual
traits
suggest specific
niches for birds and
give indicators of
feeding habits and
habitats.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l25MBq8T77w
BIRD ADAPTATIONS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XzHQ5-lYvrk
 Gene
Pool- Combined
genetic combination of an
entire population.
 -combinations
of alleles
(A,B,O,AB blood types), (eye
colors etc.)
 How
often do you see those
traits?- Relative frequency
GENES AND VARIATION
Blood Type
and Rh
United
States
Frequency
% of U.S.
Population
O+
1 in 3
37.4%
O-
1 in 15
6.6%
A+
1 in 3
35.7%
A-
1 in 6
6.3%
B+
1 in 12
8.5%
B-
1 in 67
1.5%
AB+
1 in 29
3.4%
AB-
1 in 167
0.6%
 1)
Genetic shufflingrandom draw of genetic
traits during meiosis.
Crossing over. 8.4 million
combos of genes in 23
chromosomes.
 2)
Mutations
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVmusHZtQms
HOW DOES A POPULATION GAIN
GENETIC VARIATION?
 Review Single
gene (controlled by a
gene with two alleles) Widows
Peak
 Poly
gene (controlled by two
or more genes with multiple
geno/phenotype possibilities)
Height, eye color, skin color.
SINGLE GENE VS. POLY GENE TRAITS
selection acts on phenotypes
not so much genotypes
 Nat
 Evolution acts on populations not
individuals
 What
factors can change the
frequency of alleles in a population?
16-2 NATURAL SELECTION AND
POPULATIONS
 Adding
cards to the deck
 Removing
cards from the deck
 (AKA-
deaths without
reproducing, individuals
producing an abundance
of offspring)
FACTORS THAT AFFECT ALLELE
FREQUENCY
 Simpler
to calculate
and understand
 Coloration
in an
organism…
 Allele
could altogether
disappear
 Adaptations
that
enhance traits will
survive
SINGLE GENE FREQUENCY
 More
complicated
to predict
 Ex.
height
POLY GENE FREQUENCY
Selection
at
one end of the
curve
increases due
to higher
fitness.
DIRECTIONAL SELECTION
 Individuals
at the
center (norm) of
curve have a
higher fitness than
the ends of the
curve.
 Ex.
Baby weight
STABILIZING SELECTION
 Individuals
at
high/low
extreme of
curve have a
higher fitness
that in the
middle
(norm)
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION
 Random
change
in allele frequency
 Can
cause an
allele to become
more or less
common over
time
GENETIC DRIFT
Allele
frequency
is constant
Population
is not
evolving
GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM
 In
order to have
genetic equilibrium…
 1-
No mutations
 2-
No natural selection
 3-Random
 4-Large
mating
population
 5-No
movement into or out
of population
HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE
 Formation
of a new
species
 Organisms
that breed
with one another and
produce fertile
offspring.
 Common
gene pool
SPECIATION
As
new species
evolve populations
become
reproductively
isolated from
one another
REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
 Species
have
different behavioral
practices such as
mating song, and
technique so they
don’t reproduce
together.
BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION
Reproduction
is
isolated due to a
physical barrier
such as water, a
landform
(mountains) etc.
GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
Reproduction
is isolated due
to different
reproduction
dates/times.
(spring/fall)
TEMPORAL ISOLATION