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Transcript
Chapter 2 Body Structures
Lesson Plans
Objectives:
 Define anatomy and physiology and name several subdisciplines
 Describe the levels of organization that make up the human body
 List the eleven systems of the human body, the organs present in each, and their
general function
 List and describe the basic structural units of the body
 Describe anatomic position
 Locate body cavities and abdominopelvic regions
 Describe terms related to position, direction, and planes of the body
A.
B.
C.
Anatomy is the science of body structures and the relationships among structures
Physiology is te science of body functions—how the body parts work
Subdisciplines of anatomy
a. Embryology
b. Developmental biology
c. Histology
d. Surface anatomy
e. Gross anatomy
f. Systemic anatomy
g. Regional anatomy
h. Radiographic anatomy
i. Pathological anatomy
j. Neurophysiology
k. Endocrinology
l. Cardiovascular physiology
m. Immunology
n. Respiratory physiology
o. Renal physiology
p. Exercise physiology
D.
Organization of the body
a. Chemical level includes atoms, the smallest units of matter that participate in
chemical reactions, and molecules two or more atoms joined together. Certain
atoms such as carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus
(P), calcium (Ca), and sulfur (S) are essential to maintain life.
b. Cellular (cyto) level, molecules combine to form cells, the basic structural and
functional units of an organism. Cells are the smallest living units in the human
body. Smooth cells, nerve cells, epithelial cells.
c. Tissues (hist/o) are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that
work together to perform a particular function. There are just four basic types of
tissue in your body
i. Epithelial tissue: covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body
cavities, and ducts. It also forms glands.
ii. Connective tissue: protects and supports the body and its organs.
iii. Muscle tissue: generates the physical force needed to make body
structures move.
iv. Nervous tissue: detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and
outside the body and responds by generating nerve impulses that help
maintain homeostasis.
d. Organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of
tissues; they have specific functions and usually are recognizable by shapes.
Lungs, heart, kidneys, brain, stomach, etc.
e. System consists of related organs that have a common function. Digestive
system includes mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and
large intestines, gallbladder, pancreas.
f. Organism is any living individual.
E.
Directional Terms: (frames 2-8 – 2-32) recall the suffixes –ac, -al, -ar, -iac, and
–ior are adjectives endings meaning pertaining to, relating to. These suffixes help
describe position, direction, body divisions, and body structures.
a. Anatomical position
b. Anterior/Posterior
c. Ventral/dorsal
d. Lateral/medial
e. Inferior/superior
f. Proximal/distal
g. Caudal
h. Cephalic
F.
G.
Review the three basic rules for building medical words page 31.
Body Planes (frames 2-33 – 2-46) Planes are imaginary horizontal and vertical
lines that divide the body into sections. A vertical plane is an up and down line at a
right angle to the horizon. A horizontal plane is flat, crosswise line like the horizon.
a. Vertical planes
i. Midsagittal plane also known as the midline is the vertical plane that
divides the body from top to bottom in equal left and right halves.
ii. Sagittal plane is any vertical plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that
divies the body into unequal left and right portions
iii. Coronal plane also known as the frontal plane is any vertical plane at
right angles to the sagittal plane that divides the body into anterior and
posterior portions.
b. Horizontal planes
i. Transverse plane also known as the horizontal plane divides the
body into superior and inferior portions. This division can be at the waist.
H.
Body cavities A body cavity is a space within the body that contains and protects
the internal organs.
a. Dorals cavity protects the structures of the nervous system that coordinates
the bodily functions. The dorsal cavity is divided into two parts
i. Cranial cavity, which is located with in the skull, contains the brain.
ii. Spinal cavity which is located with the spinal column, contains the
spinal cord.
b. Ventral cavity contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis. The
ventral cavity is divided into three parts:
i. Thoracic cavity also known as the chest cavity, protects the heart and
lungs. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
ii. Abdominal cavity contains primarily the major organs of digestion.
iii. Pelvic cavity is the space formed by the pelvic bones. It contains
primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems. There is
no division between the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
I.
Abdominopelvic quadrants to make it easier to describe where an organ or a
pain is located, the abdomen is divided into four imaginary quadrants.
a. RUQ
b. LUQ
c. RLQ
d. LLQ
J.
K.
Abdominopelvic regions
Abbreviations
i. AP = anteroposterior; anteroposterior projection has a patient positioned
with the back parallel to the film. The x-ray beam travels from anterior
to posterior.
L.
Pathological, diagnostic, and therapeutic terms
Chapter 2
Body Structure
Quiz 3
Element
Meaning
Basic Structual Units
cartilage
Element
Meaning
Suffixes
-logist
cyt/o
toward
hist/o
poison
nucleus
study of
separation,
destruction, loosening
Location
medi/o
Body Regions
far, farthest
gastr/o
side, to one side
umbilic/o
anter/o
abdomen
infer/o
loins
tail
back
chest
cephal/o
ventr/o
groin
near, nearest
ili/o
back of body, behind
crani/o
Chapter 2
Body Structure
Quiz 3
Element
Meaning
Basic Structual Units
Element
Meaning
Suffixes
chondr/o
cartilage
-logist
specialist
cyt/o
cell
-ad
toward
hist/o
tissue
-toxic
poison
nucle/o
nucleus
-ology
study of
separation,
destruction, loosening
Location
-lysis
medi/o
middle
Body Regions
dist/o
far, farthest
gastr/o
stomach
later/o
side, to one side
umbilic/o
Umbilicus, navel
anter/o
front, anterior
abdomin/o
abdomen
infer/o
lower, below
lumb/o
loins
caud/o
tail
thorac/o
chest
dors/o
back
cephal/o
head
ventr/o
belly, belly side
inguin/o
groin
proxim/o
near, nearest
ili/o
ilium
poster/o
back of body, behind
crani/o
cranium
Chapter 2
Body Structure
Quiz 4
Abbreviations
Meaning
Abbreviations
LUQ
Meaning
left lower quadrant
anterioposterior
RUQ
posteroanterior
RLQ
lateral
upper and lower
Make sure that you spelling is correct. This is great time to practice spelling! Make sure to double
check if there are hyphens
CT
CXR
MRI
PET
US
SPECT
cavities
cauterize
fluoroscopy
endoscope
MRI
radiopharmaceutical
__________________ directs x-rays through the body to a fluorescent screen to view the
motion of organs, such as the digestive tract and heart.
_____________________ is a procedure to burn tissue by thermal heat, including steam,
electricity, or another agent, such as a laser or dry ice.
_____________________ employs magnetic energy without ionizing x-rays to produce crosssectional images.
_____________________ is a drug that contains radioactive substance that travels to an are or
a specific organ to be scanned.
_____________________ is a specialized lighted instrument to view the interior of organs and
cavities.
Chapter 2
Body Structure
Quiz 4
Abbreviations
Meaning
Abbreviations
Meaning
LUQ
Left upper quadrant
LLQ
left lower quadrant
AP
anterioposterior
PA
posteroanterior
RUQ
right upper quadrant
RLQ
Right lower quadrant
Lat
lateral
U&L or U/L
upper and lower
abdomen
Make sure that you spelling is correct. This is great time to practice spelling! Make sure to double
check if there are hyphens
CT
computer tomography
CXR
chest x-ray
MRI
Magnetic resonance imagining
PET
Positron emission tomography
US
Ultrasonography or ultrasound
SPECT
Single-photon emission computer tomography
SPECT
cauterize
fluoroscopy
endoscope
MRI
radiopharmaceutical
_______fluoroscopy___________ directs x-rays through the body to a fluorescent screen
to view the motion of organs, such as the digestive tract and heart.
_______cauterize______________ is a procedure to burn tissue by thermal heat, including
steam, electricity, or another agent, such as a laser or dry ice.
________MRI_____________ employs magnetic energy without ionizing x-rays to produce
cross-sectional images.
________radiopharmaceutical___ is a drug that contains radioactive substance that travels
to an area or a specific organ to be scanned.
________endoscope_____________ is a specialized lighted instrument to view the interior of
organs and cavities
______SPECT_________________ is similar to PET, but employs a specialized gamma camera
that detects emitted radiation to produce a 3D image base on a composite of many views.