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Chapter 2 Body Structures Lesson Plans Objectives: Define anatomy and physiology and name several subdisciplines Describe the levels of organization that make up the human body List the eleven systems of the human body, the organs present in each, and their general function List and describe the basic structural units of the body Describe anatomic position Locate body cavities and abdominopelvic regions Describe terms related to position, direction, and planes of the body A. B. C. Anatomy is the science of body structures and the relationships among structures Physiology is te science of body functions—how the body parts work Subdisciplines of anatomy a. Embryology b. Developmental biology c. Histology d. Surface anatomy e. Gross anatomy f. Systemic anatomy g. Regional anatomy h. Radiographic anatomy i. Pathological anatomy j. Neurophysiology k. Endocrinology l. Cardiovascular physiology m. Immunology n. Respiratory physiology o. Renal physiology p. Exercise physiology D. Organization of the body a. Chemical level includes atoms, the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions, and molecules two or more atoms joined together. Certain atoms such as carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and sulfur (S) are essential to maintain life. b. Cellular (cyto) level, molecules combine to form cells, the basic structural and functional units of an organism. Cells are the smallest living units in the human body. Smooth cells, nerve cells, epithelial cells. c. Tissues (hist/o) are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function. There are just four basic types of tissue in your body i. Epithelial tissue: covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts. It also forms glands. ii. Connective tissue: protects and supports the body and its organs. iii. Muscle tissue: generates the physical force needed to make body structures move. iv. Nervous tissue: detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating nerve impulses that help maintain homeostasis. d. Organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually are recognizable by shapes. Lungs, heart, kidneys, brain, stomach, etc. e. System consists of related organs that have a common function. Digestive system includes mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, pancreas. f. Organism is any living individual. E. Directional Terms: (frames 2-8 – 2-32) recall the suffixes –ac, -al, -ar, -iac, and –ior are adjectives endings meaning pertaining to, relating to. These suffixes help describe position, direction, body divisions, and body structures. a. Anatomical position b. Anterior/Posterior c. Ventral/dorsal d. Lateral/medial e. Inferior/superior f. Proximal/distal g. Caudal h. Cephalic F. G. Review the three basic rules for building medical words page 31. Body Planes (frames 2-33 – 2-46) Planes are imaginary horizontal and vertical lines that divide the body into sections. A vertical plane is an up and down line at a right angle to the horizon. A horizontal plane is flat, crosswise line like the horizon. a. Vertical planes i. Midsagittal plane also known as the midline is the vertical plane that divides the body from top to bottom in equal left and right halves. ii. Sagittal plane is any vertical plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divies the body into unequal left and right portions iii. Coronal plane also known as the frontal plane is any vertical plane at right angles to the sagittal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. b. Horizontal planes i. Transverse plane also known as the horizontal plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions. This division can be at the waist. H. Body cavities A body cavity is a space within the body that contains and protects the internal organs. a. Dorals cavity protects the structures of the nervous system that coordinates the bodily functions. The dorsal cavity is divided into two parts i. Cranial cavity, which is located with in the skull, contains the brain. ii. Spinal cavity which is located with the spinal column, contains the spinal cord. b. Ventral cavity contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis. The ventral cavity is divided into three parts: i. Thoracic cavity also known as the chest cavity, protects the heart and lungs. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities ii. Abdominal cavity contains primarily the major organs of digestion. iii. Pelvic cavity is the space formed by the pelvic bones. It contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems. There is no division between the abdominal and pelvic cavities. I. Abdominopelvic quadrants to make it easier to describe where an organ or a pain is located, the abdomen is divided into four imaginary quadrants. a. RUQ b. LUQ c. RLQ d. LLQ J. K. Abdominopelvic regions Abbreviations i. AP = anteroposterior; anteroposterior projection has a patient positioned with the back parallel to the film. The x-ray beam travels from anterior to posterior. L. Pathological, diagnostic, and therapeutic terms Chapter 2 Body Structure Quiz 3 Element Meaning Basic Structual Units cartilage Element Meaning Suffixes -logist cyt/o toward hist/o poison nucleus study of separation, destruction, loosening Location medi/o Body Regions far, farthest gastr/o side, to one side umbilic/o anter/o abdomen infer/o loins tail back chest cephal/o ventr/o groin near, nearest ili/o back of body, behind crani/o Chapter 2 Body Structure Quiz 3 Element Meaning Basic Structual Units Element Meaning Suffixes chondr/o cartilage -logist specialist cyt/o cell -ad toward hist/o tissue -toxic poison nucle/o nucleus -ology study of separation, destruction, loosening Location -lysis medi/o middle Body Regions dist/o far, farthest gastr/o stomach later/o side, to one side umbilic/o Umbilicus, navel anter/o front, anterior abdomin/o abdomen infer/o lower, below lumb/o loins caud/o tail thorac/o chest dors/o back cephal/o head ventr/o belly, belly side inguin/o groin proxim/o near, nearest ili/o ilium poster/o back of body, behind crani/o cranium Chapter 2 Body Structure Quiz 4 Abbreviations Meaning Abbreviations LUQ Meaning left lower quadrant anterioposterior RUQ posteroanterior RLQ lateral upper and lower Make sure that you spelling is correct. This is great time to practice spelling! Make sure to double check if there are hyphens CT CXR MRI PET US SPECT cavities cauterize fluoroscopy endoscope MRI radiopharmaceutical __________________ directs x-rays through the body to a fluorescent screen to view the motion of organs, such as the digestive tract and heart. _____________________ is a procedure to burn tissue by thermal heat, including steam, electricity, or another agent, such as a laser or dry ice. _____________________ employs magnetic energy without ionizing x-rays to produce crosssectional images. _____________________ is a drug that contains radioactive substance that travels to an are or a specific organ to be scanned. _____________________ is a specialized lighted instrument to view the interior of organs and cavities. Chapter 2 Body Structure Quiz 4 Abbreviations Meaning Abbreviations Meaning LUQ Left upper quadrant LLQ left lower quadrant AP anterioposterior PA posteroanterior RUQ right upper quadrant RLQ Right lower quadrant Lat lateral U&L or U/L upper and lower abdomen Make sure that you spelling is correct. This is great time to practice spelling! Make sure to double check if there are hyphens CT computer tomography CXR chest x-ray MRI Magnetic resonance imagining PET Positron emission tomography US Ultrasonography or ultrasound SPECT Single-photon emission computer tomography SPECT cauterize fluoroscopy endoscope MRI radiopharmaceutical _______fluoroscopy___________ directs x-rays through the body to a fluorescent screen to view the motion of organs, such as the digestive tract and heart. _______cauterize______________ is a procedure to burn tissue by thermal heat, including steam, electricity, or another agent, such as a laser or dry ice. ________MRI_____________ employs magnetic energy without ionizing x-rays to produce cross-sectional images. ________radiopharmaceutical___ is a drug that contains radioactive substance that travels to an area or a specific organ to be scanned. ________endoscope_____________ is a specialized lighted instrument to view the interior of organs and cavities ______SPECT_________________ is similar to PET, but employs a specialized gamma camera that detects emitted radiation to produce a 3D image base on a composite of many views.