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Transcript
Chapter 15: Evolution
Biology
Section 1: Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
Darwin on the HMS Beagle:
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The Galapagos Islands:
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Darwin Continued His Studies:
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__________ __________:
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The Origin of Species:
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 Darwin’s theory of natural selection is not synonymous with __________.
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Section 2: Evidence of Evolution
Support for Evolution:
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1.
2.
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 __________ __________ are newly evolved features, such as feathers, that do not
appear in the fossils of common ancestors.
 __________ __________ are more primitive features, such as teeth and tails, that
do appear in ancestral forms.
 Anatomically similar structures inherited from a common ancestor are called
__________ __________.
__________ __________:
 Structures that are reduced forms of functional structures in other organisms.

 __________ __________ can be used for the same purpose and can be
superficially similar in construction, but are not inherited from a common
ancestor.
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Comparative Embryology:
 Vertebrate __________ exhibit homologous structures during certain phases of
development but become totally different structures in the adult forms.
Comparative Biochemistry:
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Geographic Distribution:
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Types of Adaptation:

 __________ is a measure of the relative contribution an individual trait makes to
the next generation.
__________:
 Allows organisms to become almost invisible to predators.
__________:
 One species evolves to resemble another species.
Consequences of Adaptations:

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Section 3: Shaping Evolutionary Theory
Mechanisms of Evolution:

1. __________ __________ __________ states that when allelic frequencies
remain constant, a population is in genetic equilibrium.



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__________ __________:
 A change in the allelic frequencies in a population that is due to chance.

__________ __________:
 Occurs when a small sample of a population settles in a location separated from
the rest of the population.

__________:
 Occurs when a population declines to a very low number and then rebounds.
Gene Flow:

Nonrandom Mating:

Natural Selection:

 __________ __________ operates to eliminate extreme expressions of a trait
when the average expression leads to higher fitness.
 __________ __________ makes an organism more fit.
 __________ __________ is a process that splits a population into two groups.
 __________ __________ operates in populations where males and females differ
significantly in appearance.

 __________ __________ prevents reproduction by making fertilization unlikely.

 __________ __________ occurs when fertilization has occurred buy a hybrid
offspring cannot develop or reproduce.
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
__________ __________:
 A physical barrier divides one population into two or more populations.

__________ __________:
 A species evolves into a new species without a physical barrier.

__________ __________:
 Can occur in relatively short time when one species gives rise to many different
species in response to the creation of new habitat or some other ecological
opportunity.

Coevolution:

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Convergent Evolution:

Rate of Speciation:
 Evolution proceeds in small, gradual steps according to a theory called
__________.
 __________ __________ explains rapid spurts of genetic change causing species
to diverge quickly.