Evolution Test Review Name 1. What is the main purpose of an organism in order to further its species? 2. What was Lamark’s Theory on Evolution? Acquired Traits 3. What was Darwin’s Theory on Evolution? Natural Selection; Survival of the Fittest Why did he wait to publish his book? He was afraid of what people would think 4. What did Darwin mean when he described certain organisms as “more fit” than others? Fitness = the ability to survive and reproduce 5. List and describe the types of evidence used in order to support his theory of change over time. a. Comparative anatomy b. fossils e. direct evidence c. DNA evidence d. comparative embryology f. biochemical 6. Define natural selection and how it is linked to evolution. Natural Selection = organisms most adapted will survive 7. What do adaptations allow organisms to do? Allows for organisms to survive better 8. Fill in adaptation chart. Type of adaptation Structural Definition How it looks Physiological Change in chemistry Behavioral How organisms act Example Mimicry, camouflage, beaks, claws Venom, enzymes Migration, broken wing display 9. What is a gene pool? A collection of all the possible genes in a population 10. A ____mutation____________ is a change in the genetic code that can cause the formation of a new species. The formation of a new species is called ____speciation_______________. 11. A cladogram shows how organisms are ______related___________ to each other. The _____closer_________ they are on the cladogram the more closely related they are. 12. What is Directional selection? Disruptive Selection? Stabilizing Selection? Draw and label the curve for each graph. 13. What could be some reasons evolution would occur. (circle any that apply) Competition mutations climate change hybrids natural selection 14. What is biological fitness? Ability to survive and reproduce 15. The situation in which allege frequencies remain constant is called equilibrium ( The population will NOT evolve!) genetic 16. Darwin noticed that the finches on the Galapagos Islands had similar features, but that they were slightly different in different areas of the island. This suggests that they all had a ______common_________ ________ancestor___________. 17. What is it called when a single species evolves quickly into many different species? (hint: Darwin’s Finches are an example of this) Adaptive Radiation 18. Identify the types of reproductive isolations that are responsible for speciation. Type of isolation Definition Example Change in behavior or how Frog calls Behavioral organisms attract mates Geographic Split of a population Mountains, rivers, oceans Temporal Change when organisms come out May flies 19. What was the earth’s atmosphere like before oceans? Without oxygen 20. Why was the appearance of autotrophs on Earth so important to the evolution of life as we know it today? Produced oxygen 21. The appendix is an organ that is no longer necessary, but may have had a purpose in a previous ancestor. This is called a __vestigial_______________ organ. 22. ____Embryology____________________ is the study of developing plants and animals as evidence of evolution. 23. A flower evolving to look like a female wasp in order to assist itself in pollination is an example of _______coevolution_________________. 24. The first cells on Earth were most likely ______heterotrophs____________ (they consumed food for energy) and ________prokaryotic___________ (cells that have no nucleus) 25. Explain the difference between convergent and divergent evolution. Give an example of each. Sample Questions: Note these are not actually on the test, but act as if they were. I promise, it will help you out. 26. Explain the difference between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. Gradualism = slow change over time Punctuation Equilibrium = no change for a long time then lots of change quickly 27. Without mutations what could not occur? Evolution evolution happens over very long time periods. Species B is most closely related to Species: ________A____________ What is the most ancestral species? ________1___________________ Species A & B and sister to: ____C & D __________________ 20. The forelimbs of a bat and a human are examples of A) comparative embryology. B) homologous structures. C) vestigial organs. D) biochemical DNA. 21. The process by which two species, for example, a flower and a pollinating insect, evolve in response to each other is called _____. A) convergent evolution B) adaptive radiation C) coevolution D) punctuated equilibrium 22. What would be the most likely effect of geographic isolation on a population? A) It favors the production of new species. B) It prevents the occurrence of mutations. C) It encourages the mixing of gene pools. 23. In the course of natural selection, best adapted organisms tend to ________ and therefore produce _____offspring. A) die off, many B) overproduce, abnormal C) survive, more D) die off, few Matching. Match each of the descriptions below (29-34) with the letter of the type of adaptation it describes. a. Structural c. behavioral b. Physiological (biochemical) 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. The short beak of a finch is used to crack nuts open. The hollow bones of a bird help it fly. Hummingbird’s long bill Lions hunting in a pack Saliva digesting carbohydrates Poison venom of a snake S S S B P P Objectives: 1. Define “species” (there are two species concepts which can be combined) 2. Define population, gene pool, allele frequency and genetic equilibrium 3. Explain these factors which disrupt genetic equilibrium: mutation, migration, genetic drift, natural selection, sexual selection. 4. Define the term “theory”. Explain the theory of evolution stated by Jean Baptiste de Lamark. 5. Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace. 6. Explain stabilizing selection, directional selection and diversifying selection. 7. Explain how bacteria evolve resistance to antibiotics. 8. Describe what the fossil record tells us about the past. 9. Explain evidence for evolution found in: a. Common ancestry b. Homologous structures c. Vestigial structures d. Biochemistry e. Embryological development 10. Explain how a new species can form by geographic isolation 11. Explain how a new species can from by reproductive isolation. 12. Draw and explain cladogram, illustrating the history of species development.