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Ch. 8 Focus/APES/Friedland
Name some of the rare metals needed to produce electric or hybrid vehicles. Then, describe the process required to
remove them. What are the consequences of this process?
How old is the Earth?
Name and describe the composition of each of the Earth’s layers.
Name the three major processes in the Earth’s geologic cycle.
What are “hot spots” and how do they originate?
What scientist proposed the “Pangea” idea? When? What theory did this lead to?
How does the composition of oceanic plates differ from that of continental plates? What drives their movement?
What are volcanoes natural sources of?
Distinguish between divergent plate boundaries, convergent plate boundaries, and transform fault boundaries.
10. How were the Himalayas formed? How were the Andes formed?
11. What does a Richter scale measure? How many times more severe is a 6.5 earthquake than a 3.5?
12. Igneous rocks are those formed directly from magma. They are classified as basaltic or granitic, and by their mode of
formation as extensive or intrusive. Explain each of these terms.
13. Name some examples of sedimentary rocks.
14. What types of rocks are metamorphic?
15. Reproduce Figure 8.15.
16. What are some of the causes of physical weathering of rock?
17. What are some of the acids mentioned that chemically dissolve rock? What are the sources of them?
18. Define soil. What are its functions?
19. List and describe the three stages of soil formation.
20. What five factors determine the properties of soils?
21. List and describe the five primary soil horizons.
22. What determines the texture of soil?
23. List some differences in “sand heavy soil” vs. “clay heavy soil.”
24. What three groups or organisms account for 80-90% of the biological activity in the soils. Describe some of their
25. Eighty-eight percent of the earth’s crust is made of what four elements.
26. List some of the environmental impacts of mining.
27. What is the purpose of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977? Describe the steps required