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Transcript
Learning Revision Test
Multiple choice questions
Question 1
Learning can be defined as:
A. The ability to store information in short-term memory
B. The ability to store information in long-term memory
C. A relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience
D. A developmental process leading towards maturation
Question 2
As Doris was driving home, she found that she was continually blinking to keep the sun from blinding her. Doris’s
response to the sun in her eyes is best described as:
A. A fixed-action pattern
B. A reflex
C. A learned response
D. Imprinting
Question 3
Maturation is the process that shows:
A. Developmental changes that occur through an orderly sequence of changes in the nervous system
B. The response to being able to orient ourselves to a familiar sight or sound
C. A learned response to a particular action
D. When a person is able to recognise and respond to a particular stimulus
Question 4
Brett’s dog Lassie has learned that when he collects her leash from the cupboard in the laundry it is time for her walk
and she becomes very excited. Lassie’s response to the sight of her leash developed through:
A. Operant conditioning
B. Imprinting
C. Habituation
D. Classical conditioning
Question 5
Ivan Pavlov’s experiments on classical conditioning were based on:
A. The ability of the organism to only respond to stimuli that it recognised
B. A stimulus and the response that occurred due to it
C. A change in behaviour that occurred with only one experience
D. The principle that an organism will respond to repeat behaviours that have desirable consequences
Question 6
Kitty heard the phone ring and picked up the receiver. In this scenario the phone is known as:
A. An unconditioned response
B. A conditioned stimulus
C. A conditioned response
D. A prop
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Question 7
Stimulus generalisation can be defined as:
A. The tendency for another stimulus, similar to the original CS, to produce a conditioned response
B. The reappearance of the CR when the CS is presented, following a rest period
C. The process of responding only to the CS
D. The gradual decrease in the strength or rate of the CR
Question 8
Watson’s classical conditioning experiment with ‘Little Albert’ demonstrated that:
A. Little Albert’s responses to the stimuli were automatic and instinctive
B. Human beings experience the same process as animals when acquiring fears
C. Human beings can develop behaviours that are habitual and often harmful
D. Little Albert was already a timid baby and was therefore more suggestible to the conditioning
Question 9
Fiona was very keen to give up her smoking habit. She tried a number of methods and finally found one that worked,
based on classical conditioning principles.
It is most likely that this type of therapy helped Fiona quit her habit by:
A. Allowing her to set herself goals and to reward herself when she finally achieved them
B. Putting her into a trance-like state and using suggestibility to slowly remove her habit
C. Associating her habit with an unpleasant stimulus
D. Putting her on medication that suppressed her desire to smoke
Question 10
One-trial learning is best described as a form of learning that involves:
A. Pairing two responses together
B. Rewarding the desired behaviour with positive consequences
C. Extinguishing an unwanted behaviour
D. A change in behaviour that occurs after one experience
Question 11
Elizabeth celebrated her birthday at her favourite restaurant with her favourite food. Later that evening she was
overcome with a fever and severe nausea. Her physical reaction prevents her from ever returning to the restaurant.
Such responses can be best explained by:
A. Taste aversion
B. One-trial learning
C. Classical conditioning
D. Habituation
Question 12
Thorndike’s trial and error experiments with a cat in a puzzle box revealed that:
A. An organism responds only to pleasant stimuli
B. A behaviour that is followed by a pleasant consequence will be strengthened, while behaviour that is
followed by frustrating consequences will be weakened
C. Negative consequences often produce positive responses
D. Repeating behaviours is the most positive form of learning
Question 13
Identify the essential difference between punishers and negative reinforcers.
A. Punishers are aversive stimuli; negative reinforcers are not
B. Punishers are removed following a response; negative reinforcers are presented
C. Punishers are presented following a response; negative reinforcers are removed
D. Punishers strengthen the preceding response; negative reinforcers eliminate the preceding response
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Question 14
In operant conditioning, the term ‘respondents’ refers to:
A. The consequences of an action
B. The result of pairing two unpleasant stimuli
C. The result of extinguishing an unpleasant behaviour
D. Behaviours elicited by known stimuli
Question 15
A fixed-interval s schedule involves:
A. Reinforcement given at irregular intervals
B. A reinforcer given after a set number of desired responses
C. A reinforcer given after an unpredictable number of correct responses
D. Delivery of a reinforcer after a specific period of time has elapsed
Question 16
There are some major differences between classical and operant conditioning. One of these differences can be seen
in:
A. The way an organism responds to particular stimuli
B. Whether the learner is active or passive in their acquisition of the information
C. Te way an organism habituates to a familiar stimulus
D. The acquisition of a particular behaviour
Question 17
Trial and error learning involves:
A. Trying to escape from a puzzle box
B. Randomly motivated behaviour
C. Trying different responses until a correct solution is achieved
D. None of the above
Question 18
The correct sequence of the elements involved in observational learning is:
A. Reproduction, attention, retention, motivation-reinforcement
B. Attention, motivation-reinforcement, retention, reproduction
C. Motivation-reinforcement, retention, reproduction
D. Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation-reinforcement
Short answer questions
Question 1
Define and give an example of a fixed-action pattern.
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2 marks
3
Question 2
Identify two reflexes found in human beings.
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2 marks
Question 3
Define the term ‘learning’.
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1 mark
Question 4
Distinguish between a reflex and a fixed-action pattern.
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2 marks
Question 5
Name the key elements of classical conditioning.
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4 marks
Question 6
Name the key processes of operant conditioning.
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2 marks
Question 7
What is meant by the term ‘neutral stimulus’?
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1 mark
4
Question 8
How might classical conditioning principles (for example, in aversion therapy) be used to eradicate an undesired
behaviour?
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1 mark
Question 9
Suggest two ethical issues that need to be addressed when researching types of behaviour conditioning involving
human beings.
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2 marks
Question 10
How might operant conditioning principles be used to change a person’s undesirable behaviour?
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2 marks
Question 11
Briefly describe the concept of ‘observational learning’.
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1 mark
Question 12
Outline two features of one-trial learning that distinguish it from the process of classical conditioning.
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2 marks
Question 13
What is meant by the term ‘trial and error learning’?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
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1 mark
5
Question 14
How was trial and error learning demonstrated by Thorndike?
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2 marks
Question 15
What is the law of effect?
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1 mark
Question 16
What is a ‘variable-ratio schedule’?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
1 mark
Question 17
How might punishment be used to remove an undesirable behaviour?
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_______________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
2 marks
6
Solutions
Multiple choice questions
1.C
2.B
3.A
4.D
5.B
6.B
7.A
8.B
9.C
10.D
11.A
12.B
13.C
14.D
15.D
16.B
17.C
18.D
Short answer questions
1. A fixed-action pattern is present when a behaviour occurs in all members of the same species and produces an
identical response to the same stimuli. Fixed-action patterns are more complex than a reflex and consist of a
sequence of responses.
2. Sucking reflex, blinking, etc.
3. Learning is the relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of experience.
4. A reflex is a single, simple response. A fixed-action pattern is a sequence of responses.
5. Elements of classical conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response,
conditioned response
6. Processes of operant conditioning: reinforcement and punishment
7. A neutral stimulus is one that, before conditioning, did not normally produce the unconditioned response.
8. Aversion therapy may be used to eradicate unwanted and habitual behaviours such as smoking, gambling and
other addictions that could be potentially harmful to the person by pairing the bad habit with an unpleasant
stimulus.
9. Name and description of any of the following: informed consent, confidentiality, voluntary participation,
withdrawal rights.
10. In operant conditioning, positive or negative reinforcement would be used to increase the likelihood of desired
behaviours. To reduce the occurrence of undesirable behaviours, psychologists would suggest to either ignore them
(to extinguish them) or to follow them with appropriate punishment.
11. Observational learning refers to a form of learning where someone uses another person’s actions and the
consequences they receive to guide their own actions.
12. In classical conditioning, responses usually take a number of associations or pairings and they can be
extinguished fairly easily. In one-trial learning, a change in behaviour occurs after only one experience.
13. Trial and error learning describes attempts by an organism to learn by trying a number of different possibilities
until a solution has become apparent.
14. Thorndike used this method of learning in his studies of a cat in puzzle box and animal intelligence.
15. The law of effect states that a behaviour with positive consequences is more likely to be repeated.
16. A variable-ratio schedule occurs when the reinforcer is given after an unpredictable number of correct
responses.
17. Punishment acts as a deterrent by using the application of an unpleasant stimulus.
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