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Kingdom Plantae
Autotrophs (photosynthesis)
By Diana L. Duckworth
Rustburg High School, Campbell County
Plants were first life to invade land
some 400 million years ago
• Three major problems to solve:
• (1) How to get nutrients out of bare rock
– Partnership with fungi - mycorrhizae
• (2) How to keep from drying out
– Developed watertight covering – cuticle
– Also kept out gases – developed stomata (singular –
• (3) How to reproduce without water medium
– Sperm enclosed in pollen – wind or insect dispersal;
prevents drying out
Demands of land environment led to cell
differentiation & thus different tissues and enabled
larger sized plants
• Stems – provide support; contain vascular tissue to carry
nutrients & water to leaves from roots
• Roots – anchor plant in soil; take up nutrients and water
• Vascular tissue
– Xylem – carries water & minerals from roots
– Phloem – carries food made in leaves by photosynthesis to rest
of plant
• Seeds – multicellular; contain embryo of plant
Protection – seed coat prevents injury & dessication of embryo
Nourishment – food for plant embryo as it starts to grow
Dispersal – by animals or wind or water
Delayed growth – can remain dormant until conditions are right
to germinate
• Leaves – structures specialized to carryout
• Flowers – specialized structures to make reproduction
more efficient
Kinds of Plants - Nonvascular
• Small – no specialized structures for
taking up nutrients or water; each cell for
• Gametophyte generation is larger &
photosynthetic; sporophyte non
photosynthetic & grows on gametophyte
• Need water for sexual reproduction –
sperm swim to eggs
Nonvascular Examples
• Mosses – leaves
arranged in spiral
around stem
– Have cuticle, stomata,
water conducting cells
• Liverworts – lack
conducting cells,
cuticle & stomata
• Hornworts – lack
conducting cells,
cuticle, stomata
Seedless Vascular Plants
• Have a vascular
• Sporophyte is larger
& photosynthetic
• Do need water to
• Have droughtresistant spores
• Example: Ferns
Gymnosperms – naked seed
• Produces seeds not
enclosed in fruit
• Gametophytes are
male & female;
greatly reduced
– Male are grains of
– Female form within
structures that become
– Have male & female
• Wind pollination
• Example - conifers
Angiosperms – Flowering Plants
• Male & Female
develop within a
flower – promotes
• Seeds are enclosed
in a fruit – promotes
• Seeds contain supply
of food called
Two kinds of angiosperms: monocots & dicots
• Monocots
– One seed leaf
– Flowers have parts in
multiples of 3
– Long narrow leaves
with parallel veins
– Examples – grass;
corn; lilies
• Dicots
– Two seed leaves
– Flower parts in
multiples of 2, 4, 5
– Leaves with branching
– Examples: roses
– Daisies; fruits such as
apples, peaches, etc.
Comparison of Monocots & Dicots