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Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Plantae
Evidence suggests that plants evolved from the
Kingdom Eubacteria, specifically the algae.
Scientists believe this because:
Each has the same type of chlorophyll.
Each have cellulose in their cell walls.
Each produce starch as a food source.
Plant Divisions
There are two major divisions into which
plants can be grouped:
1)Non-vascular plants
2)Vascular Plants
Vascularization refers to the presence of
tissues that are capable of moving water
and therefore nutrients throughout the plant.
Non-vascular Plants
*Sphagnum Moss
See overhead of life cycle which has been expertly
drawn by Mr. MacQuarrie.
The Move to Dry Land
There are three main adaptations that permitted the
move from wet or watery habitats to dry land.
Stoma – a structure located on the underneath of plant
leaves which supply a way for the passage of O2 and CO2
plural = stomata
A waxy cuticle – prevents water loss in stems and
Vascular tissues
The Stomata (pg.503)
Vascular Plants
Vascular plants are further broken down into
two groups:
1) Seedless plants
2) Seed bearing plants
Seedless Plants
Include horsetails and ferns.
These plants generate spores
rather than seeds.
Seed Bearing Plants
Divided into two groups:
1) Plants that have seeds enclosed in a fruit.
2) Plants that have seeds which are not
enclosed in a fruit. (Gymnosperms)
Include those plants that reproduce using
cones. Referred to as conifers.
Male cones generate pollen which are carried
through the air and fertilize the egg found on
female cones, forming a seed.
Once the female cone matures the seed
detaches and floats through the air to become a
new tree.
The reproductive parts for these plants is
included within a flower rather than a cone.
The mature seeds are usually housed inside of
a fruit.