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The Crusades, and the Reconquista The Crusades and Reconquista How can we best describe Latin-Greek relations in light of the Crusades? How can we compare/contrast the Muslim jihad with the Christian Crusades? How can we compare/contrast the Crusades and the Reconquista? The Crusades • Background and Context – Growing apocalyptic expectations! – Seljuk advances threatened Byzantium, pilgrims to Holy Land – Alexios I Komnenos requested Western aid (1095) The Crusades • Council of Clermont (1095) – Convoked by Pope Urban II (r. 1088-1099) – In light of problems in the East, called for crusade – Plenary indulgence promised – “God wills it!” Urban II at Clermont The Crusades • The Crusaders – Included knights, ordinary people – Going on “pilgrimage” – Very expensive undertaking! – Sought expiation of sin, sanctification – Vowed to take up cross in defense of Church, faith – Engaged in “just,” “holy” war Praying Knight of “Westminster Psalter” (13th cent.) The Crusades • The First Crusade (1096-99) – Some 60,000 crusaders! – Met in Constantinople Nicaea (1097) – Conquered Antioch (1098), Jerusalem* (1099) – Improbable victory: sign of God’s favor? – 4 crusader states established Siege of Jerusalem (1099) The Crusades The Crusader States The Crusades Krak des Chevaliers, County of Tripoli The Crusades Christian cross-hilted sword vs. Muslim curved sword The Crusades Necessities of siege warfare: trebuchets, siege towers The Crusades • The Hospitallers of St. John – First based at hospice near Church of Holy Sepulcher – Adopted Rule of St. Augustine – Infirmarians – Defenders of Holy Land, pilgrims The Crusades • The Knights Templar – First based in palace adjoining former site of Temple – Adopted Cistercian Rule – Devoted to protection of pilgrims, Holy Land – Tremendous wealth, property – Accusations of heresy, immorality suppression (1312) The Crusades The Crusades • Questions? The Crusades • The Second Crusade (1147-49) Conrad III and Louis VII lead crusaders – Edessa fell to Zengi of Mosul (1144) – New crusade led by King Louis VII, Emperor Conrad III – Recapture of Edessa not feasible – Besieged Damascus 4 days (July 1148) failure! The Crusades • Saladin (1138-1193) – Sultan of Egypt, etc. – Pious Muslim, dedicated to jihad – Aimed to unite Muslims – Victor at Battle of Hattin (July 4, 1187) – Conquered Jerusalem October (October 2) The Crusades The Crusades • The Third Crusade (1189-1192) – Richard the Lionheart, Philip II of France vs. Saladin – Conquered Cyprus, recaptured Acre (1191) – Unable to retake Jerusalem! – Three-year truce signed (September 2, 1192) Richard I “the Lionheart” (r. 1189-1199) The Crusades The Crusades • The Fourth Crusade (1202-04) – – – – Called by Innocent III (1198) “Detoured” to Constantinople at request of Prince Alexios (June 1203) Crusaders deposed usurper emperor, installed Alexios Alexios unable to make good crusaders sacked Constantinople! (April 1204) – Europeans installed Latin emperor, patriarch The Crusades Relics taken from Constantinople?: the Shroud of Turin, remains of St. Lucy of Syracuse The Crusades • The End of the Crusades – Four major crusades – Acre fell to Muslims 1291 end of crusades – The Byzantine Empire • Constantinople recaptured, empire reestablished 1261 • Bitter hatred for Latin Christians • Considerably weakened The Crusades The Crusades • Questions? The Reconquista • The “Big Picture” – “Crusade” in western Europe, inspired by events in Holy Land – Intermittent, from 11th to 15th centuries – Moorish unity fragmented (11th cent.) – Northern Christian princes launched reconquest The Reconquista • The Reconquista St. James the Moor-Slayer – Received papal support, promise of indulgence – Christian advances conquest of Toledo (1085), Zaragoza (1118) – Successes AragonCatalonia, LeónCastile, Portugal The Reconquista • Las Navas de Tolosa (July 16, 1212) – Alfonso VIII of Castile, allies vs. Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir – 100,000+ Muslims dead/captured – “The Punishment” – Last serious threat to Christian hegemony eliminated The Reconquista The Reconquista • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella – Unified Crown of Spain (1469) – Conquered Granada (1469) – “Catholic Monarchs” – Ordered expulsion of Jews (1492), Moors (1504) The Reconquista • Questions? The Crusades and Reconquista How can we best describe Latin-Greek relations in light of the Crusades? How can we compare/contrast the Muslim jihad with the Christian Crusades? How can we compare/contrast the Crusades and the Reconquista?