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Transcript
The Crusades, and the
Reconquista
The Crusades and Reconquista
How can we best describe Latin-Greek
relations in light of the Crusades?
 How can we compare/contrast the Muslim
jihad with the Christian Crusades?
 How can we compare/contrast the
Crusades and the Reconquista?

The Crusades
• Background and
Context
– Growing apocalyptic
expectations!
– Seljuk advances
threatened Byzantium,
pilgrims to Holy Land
– Alexios I Komnenos
requested Western aid
(1095)
The Crusades
• Council of Clermont
(1095)
– Convoked by Pope
Urban II (r. 1088-1099)
– In light of problems in
the East, called for
crusade
– Plenary indulgence
promised
– “God wills it!”
Urban II at Clermont
The Crusades
• The Crusaders
– Included knights, ordinary
people
– Going on “pilgrimage”
– Very expensive
undertaking!
– Sought expiation of sin,
sanctification
– Vowed to take up cross in
defense of Church, faith
– Engaged in “just,” “holy”
war
Praying Knight of “Westminster Psalter”
(13th cent.)
The Crusades
• The First Crusade
(1096-99)
– Some 60,000 crusaders!
– Met in Constantinople 
Nicaea (1097)
– Conquered Antioch (1098),
Jerusalem* (1099)
– Improbable victory: sign of
God’s favor?
– 4 crusader states
established
Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
The Crusades
The Crusader States
The Crusades
Krak des Chevaliers, County of Tripoli
The Crusades
Christian cross-hilted sword vs. Muslim curved sword
The Crusades
Necessities of siege warfare: trebuchets, siege towers
The Crusades
• The Hospitallers of
St. John
– First based at hospice
near Church of Holy
Sepulcher
– Adopted Rule of St.
Augustine
– Infirmarians
– Defenders of Holy
Land, pilgrims
The Crusades
• The Knights Templar
– First based in palace
adjoining former site of
Temple
– Adopted Cistercian Rule
– Devoted to protection of
pilgrims, Holy Land
– Tremendous wealth,
property
– Accusations of heresy,
immorality  suppression
(1312)
The Crusades
The Crusades
• Questions?
The Crusades
• The Second Crusade
(1147-49)
Conrad III and Louis VII lead crusaders
– Edessa fell to Zengi of
Mosul (1144)
– New crusade led by
King Louis VII,
Emperor Conrad III
– Recapture of Edessa
not feasible
– Besieged Damascus 4
days (July 1148) 
failure!
The Crusades
• Saladin (1138-1193)
– Sultan of Egypt, etc.
– Pious Muslim,
dedicated to jihad
– Aimed to unite
Muslims
– Victor at Battle of
Hattin (July 4, 1187)
– Conquered Jerusalem
October (October 2)
The Crusades
The Crusades
• The Third Crusade
(1189-1192)
– Richard the Lionheart,
Philip II of France vs.
Saladin
– Conquered Cyprus,
recaptured Acre (1191)
– Unable to retake
Jerusalem!
– Three-year truce signed
(September 2, 1192)
Richard I “the Lionheart” (r. 1189-1199)
The Crusades
The Crusades
• The Fourth Crusade (1202-04)
–
–
–
–
Called by Innocent III (1198)
“Detoured” to Constantinople at request of Prince Alexios (June 1203)
Crusaders deposed usurper emperor, installed Alexios
Alexios unable to make good  crusaders sacked Constantinople!
(April 1204)
– Europeans installed Latin emperor, patriarch
The Crusades
Relics taken from Constantinople?: the Shroud of Turin, remains of St. Lucy of Syracuse
The Crusades
• The End of the Crusades
– Four major crusades
– Acre fell to Muslims 1291  end of crusades
– The Byzantine Empire
• Constantinople recaptured, empire reestablished
1261
• Bitter hatred for Latin Christians
• Considerably weakened
The Crusades
The Crusades
• Questions?
The Reconquista
• The “Big Picture”
– “Crusade” in western
Europe, inspired by
events in Holy Land
– Intermittent, from 11th
to 15th centuries
– Moorish unity
fragmented (11th cent.)
– Northern Christian
princes launched
reconquest
The Reconquista
• The Reconquista
St. James the Moor-Slayer
– Received papal
support, promise of
indulgence
– Christian advances 
conquest of Toledo
(1085), Zaragoza
(1118)
– Successes  AragonCatalonia, LeónCastile, Portugal
The Reconquista
• Las Navas de Tolosa
(July 16, 1212)
– Alfonso VIII of Castile,
allies vs. Caliph
Muhammad al-Nasir
– 100,000+ Muslims
dead/captured
– “The Punishment”
– Last serious threat to
Christian hegemony
eliminated
The Reconquista
The Reconquista
• King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella
– Unified Crown of
Spain (1469)
– Conquered Granada
(1469)
– “Catholic Monarchs”
– Ordered expulsion of
Jews (1492), Moors
(1504)
The Reconquista
• Questions?
The Crusades and Reconquista
How can we best describe Latin-Greek
relations in light of the Crusades?
 How can we compare/contrast the Muslim
jihad with the Christian Crusades?
 How can we compare/contrast the
Crusades and the Reconquista?
