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Name: ___________________
Psych. 110
Exam #2 Exam Concepts
Ch. 6 - Perception
Ch. 6 – Perception
1. Explain selective attention and give an example.
2. Explain why people can get motion sickness setting still in a theater watching scenery
from a helicopter ride on the screen.
3. Which psychologists emphasize the entire concept or problem rather than the small
parts that make it up? They tend to say, “The whole is more than the sum of the parts”.
4. Explain the concepts of proximity, similarity, continuity and closure. Also, give an
example of each.
5. Explain the concept of the visual cliff and what that teaches us in psychology.
6. Discuss retinal disparity in perception and give an example of how you could see this
7. Discuss the Phi phenomenon and give an example of this in the real world.
8. Discuss perceptual set and give an example.
9. Discuss context effects and give an example.
10. Discuss clairvoyance, telepathy, and precognition, giving an example of each. Also,
discuss the research results on the effectiveness of each.
Name: ___________________
Psych. 110
Exam #2 Exam Concepts
Ch. 7 – States of Consciousness
Ch. 7 – States of Consciousness
1. Bill changed from the day shift to the night shift several times in one month. He
always seemed tired. Explain why, and discuss the factor that is causing this problem.
2. Discuss one night’s sleep, indicating the brain wave patterns that occur at various
stages, and how one type of wave differs from the others.
3. Discuss sleep spindles, dreaming and rapid eye movement; indicating when these
occur in the human sleep cycle. Also, indicate how often this sleep cycle repeats itself
during the evening.
4. Mr. Johnson often suddenly falls asleep without notice (even with sufficient sleep at
night). What difficulty does he have?
5. Mrs. Simpson sleeps restlessly, snores, snorts and gasps for air throughout the night.
What could she possible have?
6. Discuss the changes in REM sleep that occurs from infancy to old age.
7. Discuss posthypnotic suggestion and give an example.
8. Explain why the behavior of hypnotized and not hypnotized individuals may be the
9. Discuss the social influence theory of hypnosis.
10. When Celeste could not get her regular supply of heroin, she developed tremors and
an intense craving for the drug. Explain why this was happening.
Name: ___________________
Psych. 110
Exam #2 Exam Concepts
Ch. 8 - Learning
Ch.8 – Learning
1. Discuss and give a real life example (not presented in class) of the following concepts.
1. Operant conditioning
2. Classical conditioning
3. Spontaneous recovery
4. Generalization
5. Negative reinforcement
6. Positive reinforcement
7. Intrinsic motivation
8. Extrinsic motivation
9. Shaping
10. Primary reinforcer
11. Secondary reinforcer
12. Conditioned response
13. Unconditioned response
14. Observational learning
15. Delayed reinforcement
16. Immediate reinforcement
17. Reinforcement schedules
18. Fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule
19. Fixed-interval reinforcement schedule
20. Variable-ratio reinforcement schedule
21. Variable-interval reinforcement schedule
22. Continuous reinforcement schedule
2. At the grocery store, you see a child having a screaming fit because she wanted some
candy and mother said “no”. Explain what mother possibly did in the past to create this
behavior today. Use whatever concepts you can from question number one in your
3. Discuss the effect of thinking (cognitive processes) on changing behavior using
operant conditioning and give an example.
Name: ___________________
Psych. 110
Exam #2 Exam Concepts
Ch. 9 - Memory
Ch. 9 – Memory
1. David wants to study for his Psychology exam. How could he use the spacing effect
and the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve to study more effectively? Explain what these two
items are in your answer and apply them to David’s situation.
2. Twee is designing an ad to sell a product. Explain how she could use the serial
position effect to make the ad more effective.
3. Explain visual encoding and give an example of how it could be used.
4. Bill wants to remember the first eight cranial nerves in the order they occur. How
could he use the method of loci to accomplish this?
5. Why are phone numbers like 1-800-HOLIDAY or 1-800-FLOWERS so effective and
easy to remember? Please use the concept(s) discussed in this chapter in your answer.
6. Discuss the difference between explicit memory and implicit memory and give an
example of each.
7. If you want your boyfriend (girlfriend) to remember you long after you have separated,
how could you use retrieval cues to do this?
8. Janet wanted people to remember her difficult last name. Therefore, when she
introduced herself she would say her name rhymes with ____. Thereafter when people
could not remember her name, they would remember it rhymes with the common word
_____. This would then help them recall her difficult last name. Janet was using what
psychological process to help people remember her name?
9. Discuss proactive and retroactive interference with memory. Give an example of these
concepts using the remembering (or forgetting) of new or past phone numbers.
10. Janet constructed vivid, detailed memories of her father’s abuse after being told about
this by her mother. Later, it turned out that mother made everything up and it never
actually happened. However, Janet’s memories were still vivid of something that never
occurred. What concept would explain Janet’s memories?
11. When given incorrect information about an event someone recalls or even actually
witnessed, they tend to incorporate this incorrect information into their memories. What
is this an example of?