Download WH 1 Lesson 28 Instructional Resource 1

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Julius Caesar
His role in the collapse of the Roman
Decline of the Roman Republic
 Spread of slavery in the agricultural system
Increased due to conquests and wars
 Migration of small farmers into cities and
They lost everything
Were forced to leave their lands and wealthy people bought
Now slaves worked their lands
 Devaluation of Roman currency – inflation.
Government Corruption
► Politicians
were out for personal benefits
and wealth.
► Popular
discontent threatened politicians.
► Due
to constant fighting for power,
political factions emerged.
 Optimales – patricians and wealthy
► Wanted
to keep all the power and keep it away from popular
 Populares – all the people, including the plebeians.
► Advocated
interests of everybody
Civil Wars
 Unable to resolve its
problems peacefully,
Rome was plunged into a
series of civil wars.
 The two factions fought
for control of the Senate.
 Assassinations were
frequently used to
eliminate competition.
Julius Caesar
Was born in 100 B.C. to a
patrician family with a good
name, but no money.
He entered politics and joined
He was an ambitious military
commander, great lawyer, and
politician (became a Consul).
Evolution of Imperial Rome
• First triumvirate - the alliance of Julius Caesar,
Pompey, and Marcus Crassus formed in 60 B.C.
– Triumvirate is a ruling board or commission of three men.
• The three men were able to control Rome, and the
alliance aided Caesar’s rise to power.
• He seized power after Pompey turned against him
and declared himself a dictator.
– After 10 years he proclaimed himself a dictator for life – it was
against Roman constitution.
Caesar and Cleopatra
Caesar met
Cleopatra in Egypt
(pharaoh of Egypt).
She had interest in
common people of
They had an affair
and then a son.
He later took them both to
Rome, where they were
staying when he died
A group of Senators conspired against Caesar
On March 15, 44 B.C., 23 Senators assassinated him.
They stabbed him extensively
They were led by Marcus Brutus.
They wanted to return to the old ways
Wanted to put an end to the tyrant and to restore the Republic
But it was too late for the Republic to ever return!
From Republic to Empire
Civil War broke out after Caesar’s murder between Marc
Antony and Octavian.
Octavian defeated Mark Antony and became Rome’s first
He changed his name to Augustus Caesar.
Failure to provide for peaceful succession of Emperor later
becomes a problem.
Empire – unified and enlarged territory, ruled through
imperial authority and the military.