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Chapter 7/8 New Nation 1. The Report on Public Credit was authored by ________________________________. 2. Name one individual who opposed the creation of the B.U.S. 3. The “midnight appointments” made by ____________________ when leaving office sparked the case of ________________ vs. _________________. 4. Why did France sell the land involved in the Louisiana Purchase to the US? 5. What ship was set on fire by Lt. Decatur during the Tripolitan War in 1804? 6. President Jefferson sent his private secretary to explore the lands beyond the Mississippi River. What was the name of this man? 7. Who was John Jay? – what position in government did he hold? 8. The War of 1812 was fought between what nations? 9. Jefferson would have argued for ____________ interpretation of the Constitution. 10.How did Washington respond to the Whiskey Rebellion? Early American Problems 1. 2. 3. 4. the nation was severely in debt – economic depression set in England – refused to appeal Navigation Acts, armed Natives along frontier, did not remove troops from posts along Mississippi Barbary Pirates attack ships in Mediterranean Sea Spanish closed Mississippi from New Orleans Making the Government Work • In 1789, George Washington was elected unanimously by electoral college – set precedents as the nation’s first President. • John Adams was the first Vice-President. • New York City was the first capital of the U.S. • Washington appointed four men to his first Cabinet. Am I a Federalist or a Republican? 1. Francois Goulet 4. Hans Gruber • Farmer from Georgia • German immigrant • 5th grade education • Pennsylvania farmer 2. Brandon Smith 5. Sally Moore • Lawyer from Boston, MA • Mother of five • College graduate • Employee of a Massachusetts textile mill 3. John Marshall • Virginia planter • College graduate • Future Chief Justice of the Supreme Court • Believed that the judicial branch was too weak 6. James Prescott • Banker from Delaware • Member of the Delaware state legislature 7. Mary Worthington • Merchant from South Carolina • Sells mainly European products New Nation • French Revolution p. 317, p. 332 • British relations p. 319, p. 360 French Revolution p. 317, p. 332 France Department of the Navy 1798 John Adams XYZ What should happen to you if… -You called the president a "repulsive pedant (nitpicker), a gross hypocrite and an unprincipled oppressor“? James Callender was fined and jailed for 9 months. -You accused the president’s administration of "ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice” Matthew Lyon was fined $1,000 and jailed for 4 months Alien and Sedition Acts • Passed in preparation for an anticipated war with France • provided for some of the first testings of the limits of freedom of speech and press. • Passed by Federalists • Federalists – viewed the persistence of their party as the equivalent of the survival of the republic • Jeffersonian Republicans – favored by immigrants ANTI-IMMIGRANTS SENTIMENT – No need to "invite hordes of Wild Irishmen, nor the turbulent and disorderly of all the world, to come here with a basic view to distract our tranquillity.” – Federalist Congressman The harsh public antagonism of the 1790s largely came to an end with the victory of the Democratic- Republicans in the 1800 election. "The Revolution of 1800 Alien and Sedition Acts Alien Act (officially An Act Concerning Aliens) authorized the president to deport any resident alien considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States." activated June 25, 1798 two year expiration date. Sedition Act (officially An Act for the Punishment of Certain Crimes against the United States) a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or certain officials. enacted July 14, 1798 expiration date of March 3, 1801 Alien and Sedition Act Jefferson confirmed the new definition of free speech and press as the right of Americans "to think freely and to speak and write what they think." British relations p. 319, p. 360 Jay’s Treaty Chesapeake Impressment Embargo Act Judiciary Act - 1789 Established: Supreme Court 13 district courts 3 circuit courts of appeals Domestic Policy - Washington Raising Revenue Alexander Hamilton – Head of Dept. of Treasury Goals: Strong federal banking system, stable currency, debt repayment to establish good reputation with other nations • Report on Public Credit • Report on Manufactures BUS – Bank of the United States -> big controversy!!!!!!!! Issue was whether Constitution should be strictly adhered to or if elastic clause allows for it Dealing with Debt Congress passed a bill in 1791 setting up national banking system. The Bank of the U.S. was able to: - print paper money - use paper money to pay its bills - make loans to farmers and businesses Whiskey Rebellion • • • • Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 first test for new federal government. Angry farmers in Western Penn. rebelled at tax Why? – They were dirt poor, and simply could not afford to pay the tax. – Unfair that tax placed on poor farmer not merchant. It also planted the seeds for the first liberal/ conservative split, that would wage even until today. • Washington led 13,000 federal troops (in uniform) in putting down rebellion. Foreign Policy - Washington The French Revolution (1789-1793) • Americans supported revolution in its early stages – saw themselves in the situation. • Support soured when Reign of Terror began – King and Queen were executed • Britain and France began to war (1793-1815). Which side should we take? Neutrality • Neutral = not take sides – HARD TO DO! • Relied on trade with both. • Edmond Genet – French ambassador overestimated American sympathy for France. Recruited active American support • Washington demanded his recall. • Issue Neutrality Proclamation - 1793 Northwest Territory • Americans were being attacked by Native Americans – attacks were encourage by British •Natives defeated in Battle of Fallen Timbers – 1794. •Forced to sign Treaty of Greenville to sell off large chunks of land North of the Ohio River. Jay’s Treaty • Chief Justice of Supreme Court – sent to Britain to work out a treaty – Britain agreed to leave the forts it occupied in Northwest Territory – Britain refused to end impressment - British commanders board American ships in search of Royal Navy deserters – Great controversy arose at home – many Americans saw it as a betrayal of revolutionary ideals. Hamilton Jefferson Describe the events of the Whiskey Rebellion. Did Washington act appropriately in this situation? What is impressment? John Adams XYZ Affair – French agents demanded bribes from American delegates in Paris – 1797 Delegates refused Nation prepares for war with France Undeclared naval war in Caribbean Convention of 1800 – avoided all-out war Order and Describe: Washington’s Farewell Address XYZ Affair Jay’s Treaty Neutrality Proclamation REMEMBER THAT ADAMS KEPT US OUT OF WAR WITH FRANCE – COST HIM HIS POLITICAL CAREER.