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Immune system
Chp. 16 (pp. 323-350)
~20,000 genes affect immunity, usually
polygenic or multifactorial traits
Major Structures• Lymphocyte (produce by spleen)
- one kind of white blood cell
- T-cell and B-cell
• Lymph vessels
• Lymph nodes
• White blood cells
• Spleen
• Skin
Function of the system
• The immune system is the system of
specialized cells and organs that protect
an organism from outside biological
• Defends against pathogens and disease
Cell surfaces used to recognize “foreign” or
“nonself” surfaces
Autoimmune- immune system attacks individuals
own tissues or organs
Genes encode for
initiate immune response
antibodies are proteins which attack foreign molecules
cytokines are biochemicals which attack foreign
antigens molecules that cause an immune
Lymph nodes
-Store blood
-Kill old RBC
-Produce lymphocyte
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
infection will lead to immune system
• HIV usually invades helper T cell, which
begin to produce HIV soon after infection.
• Helper T cell die, the
– immune system gradually weakens
– becomes overwhelmed by pathogens that
would normally detect and destroy.
Diseases associated with that system
Graves’ disease
Multiple sclerosis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- facial skin rash, painful joints, fever,
fatigue, kidney problem, weight loss
• Type I diabetes
One interesting fact
• Allergy is the body’s overreaction to a normally
harmless antigen
• Allergy- causing antigens include pollen, spores,
foods, drugs, and dust mites.
Allergies are caused by our immune
system protecting us too much!!!!!!!!!