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Transcript
Immune prophylaxis
and
Immunotherapy
Immune prophylaxis
I. Introduction
•The last known person
in the world to have a
natural case of smallpox.
Variola minor in 23year-old Ali Maow
Maalin, Merka, Somalia
CDC
•In 1980, WHO
announced that
smallpox has been
eradicated in the world.
II. Essential requirements of vaccine
III. Artificial active immunization

Antigen:Vaccine or Toxoid

inactivated vaccine (Dead vaccine )

Live-attenuated vaccine

Toxoid

Recombinant Vaccine:HBsAg
Agents used in active immunization

1.
The agent used for artificial active
immunization is called vaccine.
inactivated vaccine (Dead vaccine )
Standard strain of a microbe is killed and
severed as an immunogen.
For example: cholera vaccine
Japanese encephalitis vaccine
rabies vaccine
typhoid vaccine
Agents used in active immunization



2. Live-attenuated vaccine
It is more effective than dead vaccine
I.E:Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
vaccine;Measles virus vaccine;Polio
virus vaccine (oral);Typhoid vaccine
(oral live attenuated bacteria)
Live attenuated vs inactivated Vaccines
Live-attenuated Vaccines
Route
imitating natural infection
Doses
Times
Side effects
Duration
small
once
slight
Long
(3~5years or life long)
possible
4C or lymphilization
Mutation
Preservation
Inactivated
Vaccines
Injection
subcutaneously
Large
Twice or more
severe
Short
(months~1 years)
impossible
easy to preserve
Live attenuated vs inactivated
Vaccines
Jonas Salk
Albert Sabin
3. Toxoid

Exotoxin can be converted into nontoxic but still
immunogenic preparations called toxoid.

Examples:Diphtheria toxoid, Tetanus toxoid
IV. Artificial passive immunization

Abs:Antitoxin,Human Ig(IMIG,IVIG,Specific
Ig,McAb)

Cytokines(IL-2, IFN, CSF)

Cells(LAK,TIL).
Comparison between active and passive immunization
Active immunization
Administration
Ag (vaccines, toxoid)
slowly
Passive immunization
Ab (antitoxin, globulin)
immediately
Production of
immunity
Duration of
immunity
long (from several
months to years)
short (2 weeks to
months)
Usage
immunoprophylaxis
emergency
prophylaxis
and therapy
V. Adjuvant


A substance that, when mixed with
an immunogen, enhances the
immune response against the
immunogen.
Alum
VI. Planned immunization
•
A rational program of immunization against
infectious diseases has been committed in
children worldwide when many of the most
damaging and preventable infections normally
appear.
•
The program of childhood immunization is
called planned immunization.
Planned immunization schedule in China
Primary
Immunization
Booster/
reimmunization
Age
Type of vaccine
Birth
BCG vaccine, HBV vaccine (1st)
1 month
HBV vaccine (2nd)
2 months
Poliovirus vaccine (1st)
3 months
Poliovirus vaccine (2nd), DTP (1st)
4 months
Poliovirus vaccine (3rd), DTP (2nd)
5 months
DTP (3rd)
6 months
HBV (3rd), Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
8 months
Measles virus vaccine
1 year
Japanese encephalitis vaccine (1st and 2nd)
1.5 years
DTP, Measles virus vaccine, Poliovirus
Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
2 years
Japanese encephalitis vaccine
3 years
Japanese encephalitis vaccine
4 years
Poliovirus vaccine
5 years
DTP, Measles virus vaccine, BCG vaccine, Meningococcal
polysaccharide vaccine
vaccine,
VII. Development of novel vaccines
• Subunit vaccine
• These vaccines are in use which make
use of antigens either purified from
microorganisms or produced by
recombinant DNA technology.
• e.g. HBV vaccine (HBsAg)
• Conjugate vaccine
• Synthetic peptide vaccine
• Genetic engineering vaccine

Recombinant antigen vaccine

Recombinant vector vaccine

DNA vaccine

Transgenic plant vaccine
Reverse vaccinology for identification novel vaccine antigen
Preventative Vaccine
Therapeutic Vaccine
VIII. Challenge of vaccines
HIV
HCV
TB
Malaria
Immunotherapy
I. Conception and classification
Name
Scope or Characteristic
immunoenhancing therapy
Infection, Tumor, IDD
immunosuppressive therapy
HVGR, GVHR, AID,
Anaphylaxis, Inflammation
active immunotherapy
passive immunotherapy
Vaccine,Therapeutic
Vaccine of tumor,
Ab, LAK cell
specific immunotherapy
Peptide,antigen,
Non-specific immunotherapy
BCG, cytokines
II. Molecular Immunotherapy
1. Molecular Vaccine
 Synthetic peptide vaccine
 Recombinant vector vaccine
 DNA vaccine
used as treatment of tumor and
infection
II. Molecular Immunotherapy
2. Antibody-polyclonal Ab
 antitoxic serum
 placental gamma-globulin
 antibacterial immune serum
 antiviral immune serum
 anti-lymphocyte gamma-globulin, ALG
II. Molecular Immunotherapy
2. Antibody-Monoclonal antibody, mAb



mAb against surface membrane
molecules on lymphocytes:CD3,
CD20,
mAb against cytokines:TNF
mAb-directed therapy
mAb coupled to isotopes, drugs, toxins
Application of Ab in vitro: elimination of cancer cells
in bone marrow or T cells to prevention GVHD
Examples of tumor antigens that have been targeted
by monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.
II. Molecular Immunotherapy
2. Antibody-Genetic engineering Ab




Chimeric Ab
Humanized Ab (CDR-grafted Ab)
Single chain Ab
Bispecific Ab
II. Molecular Immunotherapy
3. Cytokines and their antagonists


Cytokine supplement and addition
therapy
IFN, IL-2, CSF
Cytokine blockade and suppression
anti-TNF IL-1Ra sIL-1R
III. Cellular Immunotherapy
1.
Cellular Vaccine

Tumor cellular vaccine


Gene-modified cancer vaccine
APC vaccine
基于DC的免疫学治疗
浙江大学
40
III. Cellular Immunotherapy
2. Adoptive immunotherapy
TIL

LAK(CIK)
3. Stem cell transplantation

Bone marrow

Peripheral blood

Umbilical blood

肿瘤浸润性淋巴细胞治疗
42
VI. Biological response modifier and
immunosuppressive agent
1. Biological response modifier(BRM)
A variety of agents that stimulate the
immune response non-specifically are
called biological response modifier.
 Microorganism products:
BCG,
corynebacterium parvum (CP), polysaccharide



Synthetic molecules:polyI:C
CK
Hormones:Thymosin, Thymopoietin
• Immunosuppressive agents
1. Chemicals
Glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide,
azothioprine, etc.
2. Microorganism products
Cyclosporin, FK506, rapamycin
Summary


Classification of immunoprophylaxis and
their biological materials
Classification of immunotherapy and their
biological materials
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