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The Roots of Judaism שורשים של יהודה Where it Began • Judaism originated in ancient Israel • Group of people known as the Hebrews founded it about 4,000 years ago Basic Beliefs • The Hebrews > unique > monotheistic • Belief in one God • Belief > history and faith were interconnected, and everything that happened reflected God’s plan for their people • Written in the Torah, their most sacred text History of Judaism • Starts with Abraham • Father of the Israelite people • Lived in region called Canaan • God made a covenant with Abraham • Two declarations • God has special relationship with Abraham and his people • Canaan promised to Israelites • Later, Israelites forced to move to Egypt • Moses leads them in their exodus Kingdom of Israel Est. • 1000 BC > Kingdom of Israel est. • 12 separate tribes fighting • King David unites them into one nation • Solomon follows as king • Makes city of Jerusalem an impressive capital • Completes a temple to God Israel Falls • Revolts caused • Kingdom split into Israel in the North and Judah in the South • Later • Assyrians conquered Israel • Babylonians conquered Judah • 539 BC > Cyrus of Persia defeated Babylon and freed the Jews • Still lived under Persian rule Jewish Law • Torah is often referred to as the Book of Law • Dealt with everyday matters to criminal law • Patriarchal society • Men held the power > eldest in the family Jewish Law Cont. • Heart > Ten Commandments • Example > Keeping the Sabbath • Prophets taught ethics, moral standards by which to live • All are equal before God • Jews believed their leaders were fully human, but bound by God’s law Judaism Spreads • For a 500-year period beginning at the Babylonian Captivity, many Jews moved to different parts of the world • This spread of people is called Diaspora • Maintained their unique culture by living in close-knit communities. • This leads to persecution. • Judaism served as the bases for Christianity and Islam. • These are the Abrahamic religions, since the first prophet was Abraham.