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Download Mood disorders Psychological Disorders Day 3
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Mood Disorders In any given 1-year period, 9.5% of the population, or about 18.8 million American adults, suffer from a depressive illness. depression • 2. A depressive disorders involve the body, mood and thoughts. • 2. It affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. • 3. Nearly everyone will experience at least some type of mild depression in their life often due to some external sad event. • 3. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing sad mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. • 4. People with a depressive illness cannot merely "pull themselves together" and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years. Appropriate treatment, however, can help most people who suffer from depression. symptoms of depression Persistent sad, anxious, or "empty" mood Changes in appetite and weight loss or weight gain Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, Thoughts of death or suicide; suicide helplessness attempts Loss of interest in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed Decreased energy, fatigue, being "slowed down" Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions Insomnia, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping Restlessness, irritability Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain types of mood disorders Major Depressive Disorder Combination of symptoms that interfere with the ability to work, study, sleep, eat, and enjoy once pleasurable activities. Such a disabling episode of depression may occur only once but more commonly occurs several times in a lifetime. 5 (or more) of the symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period Dysthmia (Dysthymic disorder) A less severe type of depression, dysthymia, involves long-term, chronic symptoms that do not disable, but keep one from functioning well or from feeling good. Many people with dysthymia also experience major depressive episodes at some time in their lives. Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated either by subjective account or observation by others, for at least 2 years. Less severe than major depressive disorder. gender differences in rates of depression Women experience depression about twice as often as men. Although men are less likely to suffer from depression than women, 3 to 4 million men in the United States are affected by the illness. Men are less likely to admit to depression, and doctors are less likely to suspect it. The rate of suicide in men is four times that of women, though more women attempt it. In fact, after age 70, the rate of men's suicide rises, reaching a peak after age 85. Gender and Depression 25 Percentage of population aged 18-84 experiencing major depression at some point In life Around the world women are more susceptible to depression 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 USA Edmonton Puerto Rico Males Females Paris West Florence Beirut Germany Taiwan Korea New Zealand Gender and Depression 10% Percentage 8 depressed Females 6 4 2 0 Males 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ Age in Years explaining depression Social-cognitive Biological “attributional theory” Norepinephrine Serotonin (people suffering from depression tend to have low levels of both of these neurotransmitters) •Genetics •(if an identical twin suffers from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder the chances that the other twin will experience symptoms is higher than those with a fraternal twin who is suffering) the depressed person tends to think: Behavioral Learned helplessness internal ("it's my fault"), stable ("things can't change") global ("this affects everything") symptoms of bipolar disorder Cycling mood changes: severe highs (mania) and lows (depression) Mania often affects thinking, judgment, and social behavior in ways that cause serious problems and embarrassment. Mania, left untreated, may worsen to a psychotic state. Symptoms of Mania: Abnormal or excessive elation Overactive / overtalkative Unusual irritability Decreased need for sleep Grandiose notions Racing thoughts Increased sexual desire Markedly increased energy Poor judgment Inappropriate social behavior Seasonal Affective Disorder • regularly occurring symptoms of depression (excessive eating and sleeping, weight gain) during the fall or winter months • full remission from depression occurs in the spring and summer months • symptoms have occurred in the past two years, with no nonseasonal depression episodes • seasonal episodes substantially outnumber nonseasonal depression episodes. • a craving for sugary and/or starchy foods CAUSE OF SAD? Melatonin is normally released by the pineal gland in the evening as sunlight is diminishing. Melatonin causes us to feel tired and withdraw. This helps us to sleep, but if we have to be awake when melatonin is in our system, we become lethargic, disoriented, irritable and moody. Almost everyone with a mood disorder suffers worse in the winter because of excess melatonin in his or her system.