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Transcript
BIOL 2030 Human Anatomy & Physiology II
What are the parts and how do they fit?
Guiding questions for this chapter:
_____________?
_____________?
________________?
_____________?
_____________?
What Gland?
________________
_________
Portion of the brain
connected to the pituitary
via the thin stalk called
the _______________.
_________
_________ is comprised
of nervous tissue.
_________
_________
What Hormones?
All the hormones formed by the hypothalamus are either
“R” releasing or “I” inhibiting.
GHRH -- ______________________________
GHIH -- ______________________________
GnRH -- ______________________________
TRH
-- ______________________________
CRH
-- ______________________________
PRH
-- ______________________________
PIH
-- ______________________________
What target tissue(s)?
All of the
hypothalamus
hormones (“R” and
“I”) target the cells
in the __________
_____________.
Note that the
_____________
interacts
specifically with
the ___ parts of the
pituitary gland in
___distinct ways!
What is the target tissue response?
In response to the “R” and “I”
hormones of the hypothalamus…
Ex. ________________________ causes the
secretion of _________________
How does the hypothalamus
interact with the pituitary?
Hypothalamal
hormones travel to
the anterior pituitary
gland via a _______
______________
called a portal
system. The whole
structure is referred
to as the
_________________
_______________!!!
What Gland?
The pituitary
is comprised
of __ distinct
tissues from
__ distinct
origins
(___________
and
_________)
We will consider them individually…
1) Posterior Pituitary (_______________)
2) Anterior Pituitary (________________)
What Hormones?
All the hormones
secreted by the
posterior pituitary are
actually formed by
_________________ in
the hypothalamus and
are distributed along
___________________,
down the __________to
the enlarged vesicles in ________ -- Synthetic is Pitocin
the posterior pituitary.
________ -- Anti Di uretic
Hormone
What target tissue(s)?
What is the target tissue
response?
Oxytocin -causes ________
__________ in the
mammary glands
and uterus.
ADH -causes the _______
_______________
_______________
What Gland?
_______________
(adenohypophysis)
What Hormones?
TSH -- ________________
ACTH -- ______________
LH -- __________________
FSH -- _______________
Prolactin -- ____________
______________…
cause secretion of
OTHER hormones
from ____________!
What Gland?
Anterior pituitary
(adenohypophysis)
What Hormones?
GH -- _____________
MSH -- _____________
Lipotropin --
ß endorphins --
What target tissues & target tissue responses?
GH
MSH
Lipotropin
ß endorphins
ACTH
LH
FSH
Prolactin
-- __________ --- ___________ --- ____________ --- ____
--- ____________ --- ____________ --- ____________ --- _____________--
What Gland?
____________
consists of 2 lobes
joined by a narrow
bridge (isthmus).
Located inferior to the
________ and anterior
to the __________.
One of largest
endocrine glands!
What Gland?
Functionally the thyroid
can be divided into 2 main
histological components:
1) ______________, which
surround sacs (follicles)
within the thyroid
and
2) ______________, which
are found in clusters in
between follicles.
?
?
Follicle
What Hormones?
Follicular cells
secrete
T3 (___________)
and
T4 (____________ or
___________)
These hormones depend on_______ for their synthesis.
They are bound with the protein ___________ inside the
follicle. About 1-2 weeks worth stored in ________ and in
_________. T3 & T4 released from thyroglobulin before
release into bloodstream.
What target tissues and target tissue responses?
Targets =
____________
Response =
What Gland
& Hormone?
_______________ of
the thyroid gland
secrete their own
hormone: __________.
?
What target tissue(s)
& response?
__________ targets osseous (____) tissue, and
causes the inhibition of __________ (break down
bone) and stimulates _________ activity (build up
bone)
Take 5!!!
An enlargement of the
thyroid (goiter) can develop
from iodine deficiencies.
Why does the thyroid gland
respond by swelling?
Discuss with your neighbor
and predict an answer
What diseases & disorders are related to too <>?
*
Symptoms?
*
Symptoms?
What Gland?
_____________
glands are
comprised of __
__________
small glands
embedded in the
____________
portion of the
thyroid lobes.
What Hormones?
A
____ -- _________
_______
Which of the 2
photomicrographs
is of parathyroid
tissue?
(hint: only thyroid
stores products
extracellularly)
B
What target tissue(s)?
________________________ are
target organs for PTH.
What is the target tissue
response?
___
= _________
Antagonist to Calcitonin
The response of all three types of organs is to attempt to
____________________________ (Ca2+ ).
Osseous (bone) tissue responds with an elevated _______
(dissolve bone) activity and suppressed __________ (build
bone) activity.
____________ and ________ increase re-absorption rate of
Ca2+ from digested food and urine respectively.
What Gland?
The ______________ is
located superior to the
heart.
This gland is associated
Thymus
with _______________
and influences the
maturation of white blood
cells called _______ via
hormone __________.
The Thymus gland
___________ with age.
What Gland?
The __________ functions
as both an ________ gland
(products transported via
ducts) and as an _______
gland (ductless).
The endocrine portion of
the pancreas is restricted
to small clumps of cells
called _______________
(or _________________).
What Hormones?
________________ are
comprised of 3 distinct
types of cells, each
producing a particular
hormone/intercellular
chemical:
__________
: Glucagon
__________ : Insulin
__________ : Somatostatin (what type of signal?)
What target tissue(s)
and responses?
_________: __________
(except CNS) -- Causes
cellular uptake of ______,
______ & ________ from
blood.
_________: primarily
______ -- Causes
breakdown of ________.
__________: _______
__________ of pancreas - __________________.
What Gland?
Adrenal
gland
__________ are a pair of
glands that sit superior to
the kidneys.
These glands have 2
distinct components, each
with distinct
developmental origins.
An outer layer of the gland, the ________ is derived from
_________. While the inner layer of the gland, the _______
is derived from _______ ________ during development.
What Hormones?
The hormones
secreted are specific to
each region of the
gland.
Medulla:
____________ &
_____________
Cortex has 3 subregions:
_____________ : _______________ (ex. Androstenedione)
_____________ : _______________ (ex. Cortisol)
_____________ : _____________ (ex. Aldosterone)
What target tissue(s) & response for epinephrine?
Target tissues
include the
_______, ____
______, ____
and _____.
The response is
an elevated
________, and
_____, some
vessels constrict
while some
dilate.
What target tissue(s) & response for adrenal
androgens?
_________________ (ex.
Androstenedione) are converted
enzymatically into more potent
androgens such as __________.
In males this has minimal effect
compared to testosterone
secretion. During development
_____________ of these adrenal
androgens can play an important
role in ___________________.
Adrenogenital
syndrome
What target tissue(s) & response for
glucocorticoids?
_______________ (ex. _______) target many
tissues including, _______, _______, _______,
_____ & _________.
The non-immune component’s responses are
inhibition of __________, increase of _________
_________ from a.a. and fats.
Immune response is _________________ and
lowered immunity.
See ___________________ for long-term effects
What target tissue(s) & response for
minerlocorticoids?
_______________ (ex. _________) target mainly
_______________ (_________).
The response is an increased re-absorption of
_____, (which results in ________________
__________________________) and increased
excretion of K+
We will discuss this in more detail while exploring
the Excretory (Urinary) system.
What Gland?
The _______ are
_______ sex glands
that secrete
___________,
which targets many
cells in the body and
which results in
masculinization.
The ________ are _______
sex glands that secrete
________ and
______________. These
hormones influence female
secondary sex
characteristics as well as
many other functions.
We will discuss in more detail during
explorations of the Reproductive system.
What Gland?
The ___________ is in the ____________.
It secretes __________, which targets the
________________.
The response is decreased ________
secretion.
What effect on reproduction?
Activity is sensitive to _______.