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Basic Endocrine Anatomy
Some important endocrine glands
1. Hypothalamus – located in floor and walls
of third ventricle, secretes hormones which
affect pituitary gland secretion
2. Pituitary gland – sort of a “master gland”,
hormones affect many other glands
3. Thyroid – located anterior to larynx,
produces thyroid hormone that regulates
4. Adrenal glands – sit on top of kidneys,
secrete a variety of steroid hormones
5. Pancreas – Endo- and Exocrine function,
secretes hormones that regulate nutrient
6. Liver – Endo- and Exocrine function,
secrete a variety of hormones like EPO and
7. Gonads - reproduction, secrete sex
Thyroid gland
Cells located in Islets of Langerhans
•Adrenal cortex synthesizes and release 3
principal hormones:
1. Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
 Z. glomerulosa
2. Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
 Z. fasciculata
3. Sex steroids (androgens and estrogens)
 Z. reticularis
Granulosa cells surrounding oocyte secrete ESTROGEN
Corpus luteum secretes PROGESTERONE