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Transcript
DO NOW 2/18/15
1. A blood test shows that the 35 year old male patient has
heightened levels of follicle -stimulating hormone. What
ef fects would you expect for this to have on the body?
2. A pregnant woman is prescribed oxytocin to increase her
levels of oxytocin. What ef fects would you expect to see?
3. Which hormone released by the pituitary gland regulates
water levels?
4. Which hormones released by the pituitary gland activate
other endocrine glands?
5. Where is the pituitary gland located?
THYROID GLAND
• Thyroid hormones
control metabolism
• Metabolism = the
body's ability to break
down food and store
it as energy, then
utilize energy as
needed
THYROID HORMONES
•Thyroxin - increase the rate at which cells
release energy from carbohydrates
- partly made from iodine
• BMR – basal metabolic rate : how many
calories the body must consume to maintain life
PARATHYROID GLANDS
• Located behind
the thyroid
• Four tiny glands
PARATHYROID HORMONE
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) - takes calcium
from the bones to make it available in the
blood
ADRENAL GLANDS
• Located at the top of the
kidneys
• Adrenal Cortex - outer
area
• Adrenal Medulla - inner
area
ADRENAL MEDULLA
•Epinephrine & Norepinephrine – increased
heart rate, breathing rate, elevated blood
pressure (fight or flight, response to stress)
People with severe life
threatening allergies often carry
injectors
ADRENAL CORTEX
•Aldosterone – a mineralcorticoid, helps
kidneys conserve sodium and excrete
potassium, maintaining blood pressure
•Cortisol – glucocortoid, keeps blood glucose
and blood pressure levels stable, the
“stress” hormone
PANCREAS
•The pancreas is a large gland behind your
stomach that helps the body to maintain
healthy blood sugar (glucose) levels.
•Insulin – decreases blood sugar
concentrations, affects the uptake of
glucose by cells
OTHER ENDOCRINE GLANDS
•Pineal Gland – located between the
•
cerebral hemispheres, secretes melatonin,
important for maintaining Circadian
rhythms (light and dark activity)
Reproductive Glands – testes and ovaries –
testosterone, progesterone, estrogen
STEROIDS
Anabolic steroids are
artificially produced
hormones that are the
same as, or similar to,
androgens, the male-type
sex hormones in the body.
There are more than 100
variations of anabolic
steroids.
The most powerful androgen
is testosterone.
EFFECTS OF STEROIDS
 Enhanced athletic performance
 Serious effects on the liver
 Decreased production of LH and FSH hormones
 Breast formation, increased sexual desire, increased
frequency of erectile dysfunction in males
 Increased sexual desire, irregular menstrual cycle,
hair loss, lowering of voice, increased facial hair
growth, decreased breast size in females
 Most changes are irreversible
STRESS
 Bodies perceive stress  extra energy is needed to overcome
stressors
 Eustress – good stress that motivates you to keep working
 Distress – bad stress that results when the good stress
becomes to much to bear or cope with and tension builds
 Cortisol is produced in response to stress
RELEASE OF CORTISOL





Increased blood sugar levels
Increased heart rate
Increased breathing rate
NO energy spent on body repair
Decreased production of white blood cells  immune system
weakened
EXTENDED STRESS
 When cortisol levels remain high for extended periods of time,
the body takes a long time to repair and the immune system
remains weak
 Easier to get sick
MANAGING STRESS LEVELS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Exercise regularly (20 -30 minutes a day)
Meditation
Reduce caf feine
Express self creatively (art, music, writing, etc.)
STRESS LOG
 Record stress levels twice a day (once in the
morning/afternoon, once at night) for a week
 On a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 is experiencing no stress and 5 is
experiencing extreme stress, rank how stressed you currently feel.
 Each day, complete an activity to lower cortisol levels and
document a description of what you did.
 Stress Log due Tuesday, 2/24