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Human Endocrine System: Glands, Hormones, and Functions
Pineal Gland
Pituitary Gland
Pine cone shaped, located midline in
the center of the brain between the
2 cerebral hemispheres
Below the thalamus - only brain
tissue with endocrine function
Master Gland; pea shaped located
above the midline to the ear in the
core of the brain
Thyroid Stimulating
Hormone (TSH)
Hormone (ACTH)
Follicle Stimulating
Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Antidiuretic Hormone
(ADH) (Vasopressin)
Thyroid Gland
Adrenal Glands
2 lobed, located on top of the
trachea in the front neck area
Patches of tissue located on the
Pair of glands located on top of the
Human Growth Hormone
Thyroxin (requires iodine
Adrenal Cortex (outer
layer):glucocorticoids such
as cortisol
Adrenal Medulla(inner
layer or core): adrenaline
(epinephrine) and
Featherlike organ located behind the Insulin
stomach, contains the Islets of
Langerhans – specific cells (alpha
and beta cells) that secrete
hormones to regulate blood sugar
Pair of glands located near the
uterus at the end of the fallopian
Pair of glands located in the scrotum Testosterone
Regulate circadian rhythms (wake, sleep); associated with
seasonal affective disorder
Produces hormones that stimulate or inhibit secretion of
hormones from the pituitary gland
Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin
Stimulates the adrenal cortex (outer part) to secrete a group of
steroid hormones called glucocorticoids.
In females, stimulates the maturation of a follicle and egg inside
the ovary. In males, stimulates sperm production.
Stimulate ovulation in females and the formation of the corpus
luteum from the empty follicle
Produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the pituitary. Acts
on the kidneys to increase water retention by decreasing the
amount of water released in the urine.
Increases growth of long bones of the body
Stimulates and maintains metabolic activities; lack of thyroxin in
children can cause mental retardation
Maintains calcium levels in the blood which is necessary for the
normal functioning of neurons.
Control the body's use of sugar and also help regulate biological
functions during stressful moments.
Flight or fight response
Decreases blood sugar levels up encouraging the cells and liver
to absorb glucose from blood – imbalances in insulin can lead to
Increases blood sugar levels by releasing glucose from the liver –
imbalances can lead to hypoglycemia
Secondary sex characteristics - breast development, ancillary
hair, and widening of hips. Also involved in thickening of the
uterus lining during the follicle stage of the menstrual cycle.
Secondary sex characteristics - deepening voice, broadening
shoulders, ancillary hair. Also responsible for sperm production