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The Endocrine System (Chap 8)
1. Made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones,
2. Regulation of growth, metabolism,
and ______________________________
3. Responses to ________________________________
4. Maintains _____________________________________
Major Structures & Location
Hypothalamus (part of the brain)
1. Pineal
2. Pituitary
3. Thyroid & Parathyroid
4. Thymus
5. Adrenals
6. Pancreas
7. Ovary
8. Testes
Types of Glands
Endocrine Glands =
Exocrine Glands =
Control of Hormonal Secretions
- Negative versus Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback
When the levels go above or below a _______________________, the
endocrine system secretes hormones to lower or raise the level.
Positive Feedback
Pituitary Gland
Why is it called the master gland?
What part of the brain controls it?
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Prolactin or PRL –
Growth hormone or GH
Adrenocorticotropin or ACTH –
Thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH -.
Luteinizing hormone or LH –
Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Oxytocin –
What is Pitocin?
Antidiuretic hormone or ADH –
What is a diuretic?
Thyroid Gland
The thyroid hormones control your _________________________, which is
the body's ability to break down food and store it as energy
Thyroid Hormones
Thyroxin (T4) & Tri-iodothyronine (T3) - increase the rate at which cells
release energy from carbohydrates
Calcitonin – regulates the blood concentration of calcium
Disorders of the thyroid
Hypothyroidism (cretinism)
Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)
Parathyroid Gland
Located behind the thyroid, four tiny glands that help maintain calcium and
phosphorous levels
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) - takes calcium from the bones to make it
available in the blood
Adrenal Glands Located above each kidney.
Adrenal Cortex = ______________ area
Medulla = ______________
Adrenal glands produce _______________________________
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine – increased heart rate, breathing rate,
elevated blood pressure (fight or flight, response to stress)
Aldosterone –helps kidneys conserve sodium and excrete potassium,
maintaining ___________________
Cortisol – glucocortoid, keeps blood glucose levels stable; response to
Adrenal Sex Hormones - androgens (male) and estrogens (female)
Adrenal Gland Disorders
Cushing’s Disease
Addison’s Disease
Large gland behind stomach, maintains healthy blood sugar (glucose)
Contains islands of cells called the Islets of Langerhans which
secrete glucagon and insulin
Glucagon – stimulates the liver to break down glycogen, Raises
Insulin – decreases blood sugar concentrations, affects the
____________________ of glucose by cells
Diabetes Mellitus –insulin deficiency, blood sugar rises (hyperglycemia) and
excess is excreted in the urine
Type I
Type II
Diabetes Insipidus
Gestational Diabetes
What is a diabetic neuropathy?
Other Endocrine Glands
Pineal Gland – secretes melatonin which
maintains _____________________________
Thymus Gland – large in young children, gradually shrinks with age, secretes
thymosins, important to ______________________
Reproductive Glands – testes and ovaries – testosterone, progesterone,
What is gonadotropin?
What are steroids?