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Transcript
Organization of the Brain
Plasticity of the Brain
•
The brain has an amazing ability to
change and adapt to facilitate our needs.
1. Like muscles the brain can develop itself
where it need to. (The example of the
somatosensory cortex being enlarged when someone
is a musician and they need great dexterity in their
fingers.)
2. The brain can reorganize pathways. If
damage is done to nerve tissues and it
isn’t receiving information the brain will
divert the neurons to work on some other
part. (This includes damage to the brain
itself)
3. The brain can generate new neurons.
Disclaimer
• Plasticity is limited
• With severe brain damage there are limits
to how much the brain can rewire
• Unfortunately as you grow older there are
limits to how many new cells are
generated
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
• The endocrine system is made up of
numerous glands that are located
throughout the body. These glands
secrete various chemicals, called
hormones, which affect organs, muscles
and other glands in the body.
• Even though hormones are very similar to
neurotransmitters, there are some basic
differences
• Neurotransmitters messages are
transmitted short distances with lightning
speed
• Hormones are transmitted over a greater
distance at a much slower rate.
• Unlike the target specific neurotransmitter
the hormone often targets many cells, and
organs
Hypothalamus
• Is often called the control center of the
endocrine system
• The hypothalamus controls the pituitary
gland
Pituitary Gland
•
•
Sometimes known as the master gland
Is located directly below the
hypothalamus
• Is divided into 2 parts
1. Posterior: Regulates water and salt
balance
(A dysfunction in the gland can cause a
less common form of diabetes)
• Anterior Pituitary: Regulates growth, also
produces hormones that control the
adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid and
gonads
(Dysfunction: Too little growth hormone
produces dwarfism; too much causes
gigantism)
Pancreas
• This organ regulates the level of sugar in
the bloodstream by secreting the hormone
insulin
• The under or over production of insulin
can cause the more common form of
diabetes
Thyroid
•
•
•
•
•
Is located in the neck
The Largest of the glands
Regulates metabolism
It produces the hormone Thyroxin.
(Dysfunction: Hormone deficiency during
development leads to stunted growth and mental
retardation. Under secretion during adulthood
leads to reduction of motivation. Over secretion
results in high metabolism, weight loss and
nervousness)
Adrenal Glands
• Adrenal Cortex (Outside) regulate sugar and salt
balances and help body reduce stress, they are
responsible for the growth of pubic hair
(secondary sex characteristic)
• The Adrenal Medulla (inside part) they produce
2 hormones that arouse the body and help us
deal with stress
– Epinephrine (adrenaline)
– Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Gonads
• In females, the ovaries produce hormones that regulate
sexual development, ovulation, and growth of sex organs
• In males, the testes produce hormones that regulate
sexual development, production of sperm, and growth of
sex organs
• Dysfunction: lack of sex hormone during puberty results
in lack of secondary sexual characteristics (facial and
body hair, muscles in males, breasts in females)
Hemispheric Specialization
Left
• Language, reading,
writing, spelling
• Mathematical
• Analytic
• Recognizing Self
(Memories, understanding
of oneself)
Right
• Although mute, the right has a
childlike ability to read, write
and understand speech
• Spatial
• Holistic: The right combines
parts into a meaningful whole
• Recognizing others
The End