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Key Concepts
Marketing Communications
The means by which firms
attempt to INFORM, PERSUADE,
and REMIND consumers—
directly or indirectly—about the
products and brands they sell.
Marketing Communications Mix
 Advertising
 Direct marketing
 Sales promotion
 Interactive
 Events and
 Word-of-mouth
 Personal selling
 Public relations
and publicity
Integrating Marketing Communications
to Build Brand Equity
Elements in the Communication Process
Response Hierarchy Model
Developing Effective Communications
 Identify the target
 Establish the budget
 Determine the
 Design the
 Select the channels
 Decide on the media
 Measure the results
 Manage integrated
Identify the Target Audience
 Potential buyers of
the company’s
 Current users
 Deciders
 Influencers
 Can be:
Particular publics
General public
 Image analysis
 Profile the target
audience in terms of
brand knowledge.
Determine the Communications Objectives
Category need
Brand awareness
Brand attitude
Brand purchase
Design the Communications
Message strategy
Creative strategy
Message source
Creative Strategy
Informational appeal
Elaborates on
attributes or benefits.
Source Credibility
For Discussion
Describe sources you think have credibility for
endorsing each of the products below:
 Athletic shoes
 Computers
 Iced tea
 Jeans
Multinational Concerns
 Is the product appropriate for a country?
 Is the targeted market segment legal and customary?
 Is the style of ad acceptable?
 Should ads be created at headquarters or locally?
Select the Communications
 Personal communications channels
 Nonpersonal communications channels
 Media
 Sales promotions
 Events and experiences
 Public relations
Marketing Skills: Permission Marketing
 Calculate a customer’s worth over the
duration of a typical relationship and decide
on a budget for customer acquisition.
 Create messages to educate customers and
get their permission.
 Always ask for a response to learn how
customers react to communications and
measure results.
Establish the Total Marketing
Communications Budget
Affordable method
Deciding on the
Marketing Communications Mix
 Advertising
 Direct and
 Sales promotion
 Word-of-mouth
 Personal selling
 Public relations
and publicity
 Events and
Factors in Setting the
Marketing Communications Mix
Type of product market
Consumer readiness to
make a purchase
Product life-cycle stage
Market rank
Cost Effectiveness of Three Different Communications Tools at
Different Buyer-Readiness Stages
Measuring Communication Results
 Does the target audience recognize or recall the
 How many times did they see it?
 What points do they recall?
 How do they feel about the message?
 What are their previous and current attitudes
toward the product and company?
 Marketer should also collect behavioral measures
and audience response.
Example of Multiple Vehicle, Multiple-stage
Communication Campaign