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Introduction to Marketing
What is Marketing?
Social definition
A societal process by which individuals and
groups obtain what they need and want
through creating, offering and freely
exchanging products and services of value
with others
What is Marketing?
Management definition
It is the process of planning and executing
the conception, pricing, promotion and
distribution of ideas, goods and services to
create exchanges that satisfy individual
and organizational goals.
Needs and Wants
Needs are basic human requirements
 Wants are needs directed to specific
objects/services that might satisfy the need
A product is any offering catered to satisfy
needs and wants.
 A brand is when the product is from a
known source.
This is the wants for specific products
backed by an ability to pay.
Target Market
Very rarely does a product cater to the entire
market. Most products are designed to cater
to a group of customers who specifically
want such a product. This group of
customers is the target market which is a
slice of the total market. We say it is the
market segment.
Value and Satisfaction
Value = Benefits/Costs
 Benefits = Functional Benefits + Emotional
 Costs = Monetary costs + Time + Energy +
Psychic costs
Get something (product /service) by
offering something in return.
Eg. kind (barter) or money (value )
 Exchange is a value creating process
because it leaves both parties better off
(win – win situation)
Transaction and Transfer
A transaction is an exchange between two
things of value on agreed conditions and a
time and place of agreement.
 A transfer is a one way exchange without
receiving anything in return.
Relationship Marketing
Building long term mutually satisfying
relations with customers, suppliers,
distributors in order to retain their long term
preference and business
Marketing Network
A marketing network is the relationships
built with its stakeholders. Effective
relationships make up an effective and
strong network.
Marketing Channels
Marketing channels are used to reach the
target segment.
 Communication channels
eg. Advertising, telephone enquiry system
 Distribution channels – trade, direct sales
Supply Chain
The supply chain represents a value
delivery chain – from procurement of raw
materials to final delivery of product to
Potential and rival substitutes and offerings
a buyer might consider.
 Competition can be viewed in various
perspectives – brand, industry, form,
Marketing Environment
Govt. policies
Import tariffs
Marketing Mix
It is the tools that an organization employs
to pursue its marketing objectives in the
target market
 Product, Price, Place, Promotion
 4 C’s – Customer solution, Cost,
Convenience, Communication
Concepts under which firms
conduct marketing activities
Production concept
 Product Concept
 Selling Concept
 Marketing Concept
 Societal marketing Concept
Customer needs
Stated needs
 Real needs
 Unstated needs
 Delight needs
 Secret Needs
Company Responses and
E – Commerce
Bench marking
Partner – supplies
 Market centered
 Global/local
 Decentralization