Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is that the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. amzanig huh? Eevyrobdy has seen the Egnilsh rseaecrh taht sguegtss sepllnig is irrlevenat. I'd lkie to srtnalge the rseaecrehrs who did taht sutdy wtih tehir own itnseitens. The rseaecrehrs may not hvae to wrok wtih poelpe who cna't sepll, but I do! What is Natural Selection? What is Biological Fitness? What is the relationship between Biological Fitness and Natural Selection? Turn to to page 276 of your Holt Biology Textbook Research Darwin and Natural Selection on pages 276-280 and create a T-Shirt design detailing your research Darwin not the first - Evolution first proposed by Lucretius, a Roman philosopher who lived nearly 2,000 years ago before the modern theory of evolution was proposed. In 1859 Darwin, published convincing evidence that species evolve, and proposed a reasonable mechanism explaining how evolution occurs. Today almost all scientists accept that evolution is the basis for the diversity of life on Earth. Darwin struggled in school and repeatedly skipped lectures to collect biological specimens. In 1831, because of his interest in nature, one of Darwin’s professors at Cambridge recommended him for a position as a naturalist on a voyage of HMS Beagle. Darwin’s journey at the age of 22, would both change his life and forever change how we think of ourselves. In 1809, the French scientist Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) proposed a hypothesis for how organisms change over generations. Lamarck believed that over the lifetime of an individual, physical features increase in size because of use or reduce in size because of disuse. Lamarck correctly pointed out that change in species is linked to the “physical conditions of life,” referring to an organism’s environmental conditions. As Darwin visited different places, he also saw things that he thought could be explained only by a process of gradual change. Darwin found fossils of extinct armadillos. These fossilized animals closely resembled, but were not identical to, the armadillos living in the area. Darwin suggested that the ancestors of Galápagos species migrated to the islands from South America long ago and changed after they arrived. Darwin later called such a change “descent with modification”—evolution. Malthus may have been right? I’ll Call it Natural Selection Of Course I’m Right!!! Malthus suggested that human populations do not grow unchecked because death caused by disease, war, and famine slows population growth. I’ll bet that this applies to all species, so individuals that have physical or behavioral traits that better suit their environment are more likely to survive and will reproduce more successfully than those that do not have such traits. In time, the number of individuals that carry these favorable characteristics will increase in a population. And thus the nature of the population will change — a process called evolution. It is also my belief that organisms differ from place to place because their habitats present different challenges to, and opportunities for, survival and reproduction. Each species has evolved and has accumulated adaptations in response to its particular environment. An adaptation is a feature that has become common in a population because the feature provides a selective advantage. In 1844, Darwin finally wrote down his ideas about evolution and natural selection in an early outline that he showed to only a few scientists he knew and trusted. Darwin decided to publish after he received a letter and essay in June 1858 from the young English naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823– 1913). Wallace’s essay described a hypothesis of evolution by natural selection! In his letter, he asked if Darwin would help him get the essay published. Darwin’s friends arranged for a summary of Darwin’s manuscript to be presented with Wallace’s paper at a public scientific meeting. Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection appeared in November of 1859. Many people were deeply disturbed by certain suggestions of Darwin’s theory. However, Darwin’s arguments and evidence were very convincing, and his view that evolution occurs gained acceptance slowly from biologists around the world. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by four major points: 1.Variation exists within the genes of every population or species (the result of random mutation and translation errors). 2.In a particular environment, some individuals of a population or species are better suited to survive (as a result of variation) and have more offspring (natural selection). 3.Over time, the traits that make certain individuals of a population able to survive and reproduce tend to spread in that population. 4.There is overwhelming evidence from fossils and many other sources that living species evolved from organisms that are extinct. • How does natural variation affect populations? • Explain how natural selection takes place.