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• SB1: Students will analyze the
nature of the relationships
between structures and
functions in living cells.
• Lack a membrane-bound nucleus.
• Examples include mostly bacteria.
• Come in three different shapes: rod-shaped, spherical,
and spiral.
Organelles of a Prokaryotic Cell:
• No significant organelles.
• No true nucleus.
• Smaller
• “True nucleus.”
• Contain organelles.
• 2 Main Types: Plant and Animal cells
Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells
• Nucleus – “brain”; contains DNA of cell.
• Ribosomes – “protein factory”; create protein
for the cell.
• Mitochondria – “powerhouse”; converts carbs
for energy.
• Chloroplasts – “farmers”; produce food
through photosynthesis. ONLY IN PLANT
Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells
• Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – “intracellular highway”; moves
proteins to be sent out into the cell.
• Golgi Apparatus – “Fed-Ex/UPS”; works closely with ER to send
out appropriate amount of protein.
• Vacuole – “storage center”; stores energy and water;
• Microfilaments – “muscles”; help support the structure of the cell
• Microtubules – also “bones”; work closely with microfilaments
What are catalysts?
What are enzymes?
Enzymes are proteins that act and
function like catalysts.
Catalysts are substances that speed up
or slow down reactions in the body.
The Four Major
• Carbohydrates
-Carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.
-Used to store energy and
provide support (i.e. cell walls)
• Proteins
-Involved in many cellular
-Muscles and hair are made
up of proteins.
-Enzymes are proteins.
-Amino acids make up
The Four Major Macromolecules
• Lipids
– Store large amounts of energy
– Cannot be dissolved in water
– Helps support cell membranes
• Nucleic Acid
– Stores the cell's hereditary information
– Makes up DNA
– Also makes up RNA, which is used in
many cell functions
1. What are carbohydrates used for?
Answer storing energy
2. What macromolecule makes up muscles?
Answer protein
3. ______ store large amounts of energy.
Answer lipids
4. DNA is made up of which macromolecule?
Answer nucleic acid
Water is very important for all forms of
life. An example of how water is used is
the process of osmosis and diffusion.
What is diffusion?
What is osmosis?
• Osmosis--the movement of water molecules from an area of
high concentration to an area of low concentration. Water goes
from an area with a lot of water to an area with not very much.
An example of this is water going in and out of plant cells.
• Diffusion--form of passive transport where molecules
spread out across membranes.
• SB4: Students will assess
the dependence of all
organisms on one another
and the flow of energy and
matter within their
What is Primary Succession?
What are some examples of Primary
What is Secondary Succession?
What are some examples of Secondary
What is Climax Control?
• Primary Succession--a type of ecological
succession of plant life; occurs in an
environment in which is missing vegetation
and usually lacking soil.
• An example of primary succession is a lava
flow. Due to the continual flow there is no
plant life and hardly any soil.
• Secondary Succession--a type of
ecological succession of plant life.
• As opposed to primary succession,
secondary succession is a process started by
an event that reduces an already established
• Examples are forest fires, earthquakes,
hurricanes, and harvesting.
• Climax Community--ecological term for a
biological community of plants and animals
through the process of ecological succession--the
development of vegetation in an area over time-has reached a steady state. This equilibrium occurs
because the climax community is composed of
species best adapted to average conditions in that
area. The term is sometimes also applied in soil
Greenhouse Effect
• The Greenhouse effect is the creation of CO2 by the
burning of fossil fuels and having the CO2 trapped in
the atmosphere causes the ozone layer to heat up
melting the polar caps. Effects caused by humans are
pesticides, biological magnification, and pollution. By
using alternate forms of energy such as hydroelectric
energy, green energy, wind power, geothermal energy
and other types of energy will help to cut on down on
the burning of fossil fuels and delay the effects of
global warming.
• Pesticides have been found to pollute virtually
every lake, river and stream in the United States,
according to the US Geological Survey. Pesticide
runoff has been found to be highly lethal to
amphibians, according to a recent study by the
University of Pittsburgh. The use of pesticides
also decreases biodiversity in the soil. Not using
them results in higher soil quality with the
additional effect that more life in the soil allows
for higher water retention.
• Pollution is the release of environmental contaminants.
Biomagnification is the increase in concentration of an
element or compound, such as the pesticide DDT, that
occurs in a food chain as a consequence of the lack of, or
very slow, excretion/degradation of the substance. DDT is
found in many pesticides and is found to be increasing in
nature instead of decomposing. DDT is responsible for
many harmful effects on the environment such as the
pollution of rivers and lakes and can cause the deaths of
organisms that may come in contact with the polluted
The major forms of pollution include:
• Air pollution, the release of chemicals and
particulates into the atmosphere. Common
examples include carbon monoxide, sulfur
dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and nitrogen
oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles.
Ground-Level Ozone and smog are created as
nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to
Major Types of Pollution cont’d.
• Water pollution via surface runoff and
leaching to groundwater.
• Soil contamination occurs when chemicals
are released by spill or underground storage
tank leakage. Among the most significant
soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy
metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and
chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Major Types of Pollution cont’d
• Radioactive contamination--added in the
wake of 20th-century discoveries in atomic
physics. (See alpha emitters and actinides in
the environment.)
• Noise pollution--encompasses roadway
noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well
as high-intensity sonar.
Major Types of Pollution cont’d.
• Light pollution includes light trespassing, overillumination and astronomical interference.
• Visual pollution refers to the presence of
overhead power lines, motorway billboards,
scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open
storage of trash or municipal solid waste.
• Thermal Pollution is a temperature change in
natural water bodies caused by human influence.
Energy Sources
• Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from
water power. Most hydroelectric power
comes from the potential energy of dammed
water driving a water turbine and generator,
although less common variations use water's
kinetic energy or dammed sources, such as
tidal power. Hydroelectricity is a renewable
energy source.
Energy Sources cont’d.
• Most modern wind power is generated in the form of
electricity by converting the rotation of turbine blades into
electrical current by means of an electrical generator. In
windmills (a much older technology) wind energy is used to
turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like crushing
grain or pumping water. Wind power is used in large-scale
wind farms for national electrical grids as well as in small
individual turbines for providing electricity to rural residences
or grid-isolated locations. Wind energy is ample, renewable,
widely distributed, clean, and mitigates the greenhouse effect
if used to replace fossil-fuel-derived electricity.
Energy Sources cont’d.
• Geothermal power is the use of geothermal
heat to generate electricity. It is often
referred to as a form of renewable energy,
but because the heat at any location can
eventually be depleted, it is by definition
not strictly renewable. Geothermal comes
from the Greek words geo, meaning earth,
and therme, meaning heat. Geothermal
literally means “earth heat.”
• A tropism is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or
turning movement of a biological organism (usually a plant) in
response to an environmental stimulus. In tropisms, this
response is dependent on the direction of the stimulus (as
opposed to nastic movements which are non-directional
responses). Viruses and other pathogens also affect what is
called "host tropism" or "cell tropism" in which case tropism
refers to the way in which different viruses/pathogens have
evolved to preferentially target specific host species, or specific
cell types within those species. The word tropism comes from
the Greek trope ("to turn" or "to change"). Tropisms are usually
named for the stimulus involved (for example, a phototropism is
a reaction to light) and may be either positive (towards the
stimulus) or negative (away from the stimulus).
• Tropisms are typically associated with plants
(although not necessarily restricted to them).
Where an organism is capable of directed physical
movement (motility), movement or activity in
response to a specific stimulus is more likely to be
regarded by behaviorists as a taxis (directional
response) or a kinesis (non-directional response).
SB5. Students will evaluate the role
of natural selection in the
development of the theory of
August 01: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was born. Lamark
advocated a theory of evolution which included the idea
that traits could be acquired and then passed along to
November 14: Geologist Sir Charles Lyell was born.
February 12: Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury,
January 08: Alfred Russel Wallace was born.
December 28: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck died.
April 26: Charles Darwin graduated from Christ's
College, Cambridge with a B.A. degree.
September 05: Charles Darwin had his first interview
with Fitzroy, Captain of the HMS Beagle, in hopes of
becoming the ship's naturalist. Fitzroy very nearly
rejected Darwin - because of the shape of his nose.
February 16: Ernst Haeckel was born in Potsdam,
Germany. Haeckel was an influential zoologist whose
work on evolution served to inspire some of the racist
theories of the Nazis.
December 27: Employed as ship's naturalist, Charles
Darwin left England aboard The Beagle.
September 15: The HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin
aboard, finally reaches Galapagos Islands.
October 02: Darwin returned to England after a fiveyear voyage on the Beagle.
April 18: Clarence Darrow was born.
June 18: Charles Darwin received a monograph from
Alfred Russel Wallace which essentially summarized
Darwin's own theories on evolution, thus inspiring him
to publish his work sooner than he planned.
January 07: Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species by
Means of Natural Selection went into its second edition ,
3,000 copies.
November 19: Charles Darwin published a book about
his grandfather, entitled Life of Erasmus Darwin.
July 20: Charles Darwin began writing his seminal
book, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural
June 30: Thomas Henry Huxley and Bishop Samuel
Wilberforce of the Church of England engaged in their famous
debate on Darwin's theory of evolution.
Charles Darwin dies and was buried in Westminster
August 03: John T. Scopes was born. Scopes became
famous in a trial which challenged Tennessee's law
against teaching evolution.
March 13: Tennessee Governor Austin Peay signed into
law a prohibition against the teaching of evolution in
public schools. Later that year John Scopes would
violate the law, leading to the infamous Scopes Monkey
Explain how fossil and
biochemical evidence
support the theory.
Fossil Evidence
• It is possible to find out how a particular group of
organisms evolved by arranging its fossil records in a
chronological sequence. Such a sequence can be
determined because fossils are mainly found in
sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock is formed by layers of
silt or mud on top of each other; thus, the resulting rock
contains a series of horizontal layers, or strata. Each layer
contains fossils which are typical for a specific time period
during which they were made. The lowest strata contain
the oldest rock and the earliest fossils, while the highest
strata contain the youngest rock and more recent fossils.
Biochemical Evidence
• The more closely related organisms are, the
more similar is their biochemical makeup.
(e.g. identical twins).
• Nucleic Acid comparisons (DNA
fingerprinting) - the more closely related
two organisms are, the more similar is their
• DNA fingerprinting is the most preferred
way to study the evolution of life.
Relate natural selection to
changes in organisms.
Natural Selection & Changes in
• Natural selection results in Adaptations enable
living organisms to cope with environmental
stresses and pressures. Organisms change to adapt
to their surroundings.
• Change helps organisms:
– Get air, water, food and nutrients.
– Cope with physical conditions such as temperature,
light and heat.
– Defend themselves from their natural enemies
– Reproduce.
– Respond to changes around them.
Natural Selection
Recognize the role of
evolution to biological
Biological Resistance
• Pesticides (chemical used to kill bugs)If a pesticide is sprayed on a field
eventually the bugs will become immune to the
chemical in time and will stop dying off.
• Antibiotic (used for pain or sickness)If someone continues taking ibuprofen
then their system will become immune to the
medicine and will have less of an effect.