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Periodic Table Trends
Periodic Table Trends
Metallic character
Metallic Character
• Depends on how readily the element gives
up their valence e-’s
Atomic Radius
Additional shells
Addition of one proton
the electrons
closer to the nucleus
Same shell
the period
Graph of Atomic Radius
• The tendency of an atom to attract e-’s
• Fluorine is the most electronegative element
in the table
• WHY?
– Its empty valence shell is near the highly
attractive (+) nucleus (note: has 9 protons)
– No shielding effect from inner shells
Ionisation Energy
Ionisation Energy
• The amount of energy (kJ) required to
remove the most loosely held e- from an
atom to form a positive ion
– Eg. K (g)  K+ (g) + e- (IE = 500 kJ)
– Eg. Ne (g)  Ne+ (g) + e- (IE = 2000 kJ)
– A higher IE would mean a higher attraction to
the nucleus
Ionisation Energy
• Affected by:
– Charge of the nucleus
– Distance of the e- to the nucleus
– The # of inner e- shells shielding or screening
the outer e-’s
– If e- is single or paired within the orbital