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Transcript
CO2 Sequestration
Catherine Peters
Princeton University
Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop
May 15-17, 2008
Carnegie Institution Geophysical
Laboratory
CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)
Fuels
Processes
Storage options
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Geological storage options
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
CO2 phase diagram
Deeper than
3000 m, CO2
Is denser than
sea water.
100
Pressure [MPa]
Supercritical
Fluid
10
Solid
Critical Point
800 m
depth
Liquid
Density:
500 kg/m3
1
Gas
0.1
-80
Land
surface
-60
-40
-20
0
20
Temperature [deg C]
40
60
Data from Span and Wagner 1996
Geographical relationship between
sources and storage opportunities
Global distribution of large stationary sources of CO2 (Based on a compilation of publicly available information on global emission sources, IEA
GHG 2002)
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Geographical relationship between
sources and storage opportunities
Storage prospectivity
Highly prospective sedimentary
basins
Prospective sedimentary basins
Non-prospective sedimentary
basins, metamorphic and
igneous rock
Data quality and availability vary
among regions
Prospective areas in sedimentary basins where suitable saline formations, oil or gas fields, or coal beds may be found. Locations for storage in
coal beds are only partly included. Prospectivity is a qualitative assessment of the likelihood that a suitable storage location is present in a given
area based on the available information. This figure should be taken as a guide only, because it is based on partial data, the quality of which may
vary from region to region, and which may change over time and with new information (Courtesy of Geoscience Australia).
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
North American CO2
Sources
Oil and gas
reservoirs
Unmineable coal
seams
Deep saline
aquifers
Basalt formations
Planned and current locations of
geological storage projects
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Potential for Leakage
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Leakage through abandoned wells
Trapping Mechanisms
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Natural Analogues
Basins with high CO2 content. (Baines and Worden, 2004)
“MM&V”
Measurement,
Monitoring and
Verification
1996
1999
2001
Example: Seismic monitoring at
Sleipner
Example:
EU’s CO2SINK project in Ketzin,
Germany
Peters’ research related to
CO2 sequestration
•
•
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•
•
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•
•
•
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Research funding from U.S. DOE
Office of Basic Energy Sciences,
Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER15636.
•
Crandell, L.E., B. R. Ellis, J. Cheung, C. A. Peters. “Injection of CO2 and co-contaminant
gases: Are separation costs justifiable?”, Seventh Annual Conference on Carbon Capture &
Sequestration, Pittsburgh, PA. May 2008.
Peters, C. A. 2008. “Accessibilities of reactive minerals in consolidated sedimentary rock: A
BSE imaging study of three sandstones.” Chemical Geology, submitted.
Ellis, B. R., Peters, C. A., Buschkuehle, M. 2007. “Formation Buffering Potential Pertaining to
Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide”, EOS Trans. AGU, 88(52) Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract
U43C-1378.
Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Applicability of Averaged Concentrations in
Determining Geochemical Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Porous Media", American
Journal of Science. In Press.
B.R. Ellis; K.M. Bowman; C.A. Peters; M. Buschkuehle. 2007. "Consideration of formation
buffering potential and reactive mineral availability pertaining to geological storage of carbon
dioxide" Goldschmidt 2007. Cologne Germany. Download PDF of poster
D. Kavetski; C.A. Peters; M.A. Celia; B. Lindquist. 2007. "Upscaling reaction rate laws in
geochemical reactive transport using pore-scale network models" Goldschmidt 2007.
Cologne Germany. Download PDF of poster
Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates
in porous media" Water Resources Research 43, W01419, doi: 10.1029/2005WR004848.
Download reprint.
Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Reply to 'Comment on upscaling geochemical
reaction rates using pore-scale network modeling' by Peter C. Lichtner and Qinjun Kang",
Advances in Water Resources, 30:691-695.
Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2006. "Upscaling Geochemical Reaction Rates Using PoreScale Network Modeling." Advances in Water Resources, 29:1351-1370. Download reprint
Giammar, D. E.; R. G. Bruant, Jr.; and C. A. Peters. 2005. "Forsterite Dissolution and
Magnesite Precipitation at Conditions Relevant for Deep Saline Aquifer Storage and
Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide", Chemical Geology: 217:257-276.
Bruant, R. G. Jr.; Guswa, A. J.; Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A. "Safe Storage of Carbon Dioxide
in Deep Saline Aquifers", Feature article in Environmental Science and Technology.
36(11):240A-245A, 2002. Download Reprint.
Maturity of component technologies
Post-combustion
Oxyfuel
combustion
Mineral
carbonation
Ocean storage
Research
phase
Pre-combustion
Industrial
separation
Transport
Enhanced
Coal Bed
Methane
Demonstration
phase
Gas and oil
fields
Industrial
utilization
Saline
formations
Enhanced Oil
Recovery
Economically
feasible under
specific conditions
Mature
market
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Thank you!
Backup slides
Ocean storage
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
M(II)CO3
H+
M(II)AlxSiyOz
H+
M(II)CO3
M2+
M2+
CO32-
CaAl2Si2O8 (s)
Ca2+
CaCO3 (s)
Ca2+
Mg5Al2Si3O10(OH)8 (s)
Mg2+
Mg2+ + CO3=
MgCO3 (s)
Changes in porosity and permeability
Source: J. W. Johnson et al. 2004