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Transcript
Chapter 13
KEY CONCEPT
13.1 Ecology is the study of the relationships
among organisms and their environment.
Chapter 13
Ecologists study environments at different levels of
organization.
• Ecology is the study of the interactions among living
things, and between living things and their surroundings.
Chapter 13
• An organism is an individual living
thing, such as an alligator.
Organism
Organism
Chapter 13
• A population is a interbreeding
group of the same species that lives
in one area.
Population
Population
Organism
Organism
Chapter 13
• A community is a group of
populations that live together in one
area.
Community
Community
Population
Population
Organism
Organism
Chapter 13
• An ecosystem includes all of the
organisms as well as the climate, soil,
water, rocks and other nonliving things
in a given area.
Ecosystem
Ecosystem
Community
Community
Population
Population
Organism
Organism
Chapter 13
• A biome is a major regional or global
community of organisms characterized
by the climate conditions and plant
communities that thrive there.
Biome
Ecosystem
Ecosystem
Community
Community
Population
Population
Organism
Organism
Chapter 13
Ecological research methods include observation,
experimentation, and modeling.
Chapter 13
• Experiments are performed in the lab or in the field.
Chapter 13
KEY CONCEPT
13.2 Every ecosystem includes both living and
nonliving factors.
Chapter 13
An ecosystem includes both biotic and abiotic factors.
• Biotic factors are living things.
– plants
– animals
– fungi
– bacteria
plants
Chapter 13
• Abiotic factors are nonliving things.
– moisture
– temperature
– wind
– sunlight
– soil
sunlight
moisture
Chapter 13
Changing one factor in an ecosystem can affect many
other factors.
• Biodiversity is the assortment, or variety, of living things in
an ecosystem.
• Rain forests have more biodiversity than other locations in
the world, but are threatened by human activities.
Chapter 13
• A keystone species is a species that has an unusually large
effect on its ecosystem.
keystone
Chapter 13
• Keystone species form and maintain a complex web of life.
creation of
wetland
ecosystem
increased waterfowl
Population
keystone species
increased
fish
population
nesting
sites for
birds
Chapter 13
KEY CONCEPT
13.3 Life in an ecosystem requires a source of energy.
Chapter 13
Producers provide energy for other organisms in an
ecosystem.
• Producers get their energy from non-living resources.
• Producers are also called autotrophs because they make
their own food.
Chapter 13
Producers provide energy for other organisms in an
ecosystem.
• Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating
other living or once-living resources.
• Consumers are also called heterotrophs because they feed
off of different things.
Chapter 13
Almost all producers obtain energy from sunlight.
• Photosynthesis in most producers uses sunlight as an
energy source.
• Chemosynthesis in prokaryote producers uses chemicals
as an energy source.
carbon dioxide + water +
hydrogen sulfide + oxygen
sugar + sulfuric acid
Chapter 13
KEY CONCEPT
13.4 Food chains and food webs model the flow of
energy in an ecosystem.
Chapter 13
A food chain is a model that shows a sequence of feeding
relationships.
• A food chain links species by their feeding relationships.
• A food chain follows the connection between one producer
and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem.
GRAMA GRASS
DESERT COTTONTAIL
HARRIS’S HAWK
Chapter 13
• Consumers are not all alike.
– Herbivores eat only plants.
– Carnivores eat only animals.
– Omnivores eat both plants and animals.
– Detritivores eat dead organic matter.
– Decomposers are detritivores that break down organic
matter into simpler compounds.
carnivore
decomposer
Chapter 13
• Specialists are consumers that primarily eat one specific
organism or a very small number of organisms.
• Generalists are consumers that have a varying diet.
Chapter 13
• Trophic levels are the nourishment levels in a food chain.
– Primary consumers are herbivores that eat producers.
– Secondary consumers are carnivores that eat
herbivores.
– Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat secondary
consumers.
– Omnivores, such as humans that eat both plants and
animals, may be listed at different trophic levels in
different food chains.
Chapter 13
A food web shows a complex network of feeding
relationships.
• An organism may have multiple feeding relationships in an
ecosystem.
• A food web emphasizes complicated feeding relationships
and energy flow in an ecosystem.
Chapter 13
KEY CONCEPT
13.5 I can describe how matter cycles in and out of an
ecosystem.
Chapter 13
• Matter cycles through ecosystems through
•
•
•
•
Biogeochemical cycles
BioGeoChemical-
Chapter 13
• The 4 most common biogeochemical cycles are:
–
–
–
–
Hydrologic cycle-(water cycle)
Carbon cycle
Nitrogen cycle
Phosphorus cycle
Chapter 13
• Hydrologic cycleprecipitation
condensation
transpiration
evaporation
lake
groundwater
surface
runoff
water storage
in ocean
Chapter 13
• Carbon Cycle
carbon
dioxide
in air combustion
respiration
photosynthesis
respiration
decomposition
of organisms
fossil fuels
photosynthesis
carbon dioxide
dissolved in water
Chapter 13
• Nitrogen Cycle
nitrogen in
atmosphere
animals
plant
nitrogen-fixing
bacteria in
decomposers
roots
ammonification
nitrogen-fixing
ammonium
bacteria in soil
nitrifying
bacteria
nitrates
nitrifying
bacteria
nitrites
denitrifying
bacteria
Chapter 13
• Phosphorus Cycle-
rain
plants
geologic uplifting
weathering of
phosphate from rocks
runoff
animalsphosphate
phosphate in solution
in soil
leaching
decomposers
sedimentation
forms new rocks
Chapter 13
KEY CONCEPT
13.6 Pyramids model the distribution of energy and
matter in an ecosystem.
Chapter 13
An energy pyramid shows the distribution of energy
among trophic levels.
• Energy pyramids compare energy used by producers
and other organisms on trophic levels.
• Between each tier of an energy
pyramid, up to 90 percent of the
energy is lost into the
atmosphere as heat.
• Only 10 percent of the energy at
each tier is transferred from one
trophic level to the next.
energy
lost
energy transferred
Chapter 13
Other pyramid models illustrate an ecosystem’s biomass
and distribution of organisms.
• Biomass is a measure of the total dry mass of organisms in
a given area.
tertiary
consumers
75 g/m2
150g/m2
secondary
consumers
primary
consumers
producers
producers
675g/m2
2000g/m2
Chapter 13
• A pyramid of numbers shows the numbers of individual
organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
tertiary
consumers
5
secondary
consumers
5000
primary
consumers
500,000
producers
producers
5,000,000
• A vast number of producers are required to support even a
few top level consumers.