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Chapter 13 Introduction to Ecology Review
1.Ecology is the study of the relationships
among organisms and their environment.
2.__Organism___ is an individual living
thing. Ex. One Turkey
3._Population_ is a group of the same
species that lives in one area. Ex.
Several Turkeys
4.__Community____ is a group of
different species that live together in one
area. Ex. Turkeys, Grasses, Oak Trees,
Deer, Fox
5.___Ecosystem___ includes all of the
organisms as well as the climate, soil,
etc…. Ex. Forest
6.__Biome___ is a major regional or
global community of organisms. Ex.
Southeastern Forest
7.Ecological Research Methods include:
__Experimentation_, and
8.__Biotic_ factors are living things. Ex.
Plants and Animals
9.__Abiotic__ factors are nonliving
things. Ex. Wind, Sunlight, Soil,
Temperature, Rainfall
10. ___Biodiversity__ is the assortment
or variety of living things in an
ecosystem. Ex. Rainforests have the
greatest biodiversity
11. __Keystone___ Species: species that
has an unusually large effect on its
Ex. Polar Bear in the
12. ___Producers____ or Autotrophs
get their energy from the sun’s energy or
chemical energy to make their own food.
Ex. Plants and Deep Sea Prokaryotes
13. __Consumers____ or Heterotrophs
are organisms that get their energy by
eating other living or once-living
resources Ex. Cow, Wolf, Mushroom
14. ___Food______ chain links species
by their feeding relationships.
Ex. Grass→Zebra→Lion
15. __Herbivores__ eat only plants.
16. __Carnivores___ eat only animals.
17. ____Omnivores___ eat both plants
and animals.
18. __Decomposers_ eat or break down
organic matter
19. __Specialists__ are consumers that
primarily eat one specific organism
Ex. Panda eats only Bamboo
20. _Generalists_ are consumers that
have a broad and varying diet.
21. ____Producers__ use the sun’s
22. __Primary_____ consumers are
23. __Secondary_____ consumers are
small carnivores that eat herbivores.
24. ___Tertiary___ consumers are the
top carnivore.
25. __Food Web___ shows a complex
network of feeding relationships.
26. ___Hydrologic Cycle___ or water
cycle is the circular pathway of water on
Organism’s bodies are made
mostly of __Water__.
27. _____Oxygen___ Cycle: cycles
oxygen through the processes of
respiration and photosynthesis.
28. __Carbon__ is the building block of
life. __Carbon___ Cycle moves from
burning fossil fuels.
29. __Nitrogen___ Cycle takes place
underground in Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria
that live on some plants. Ex. Green
Leafy Plants and Beans
30. ___Phosphorus____ Cycle takes
place at and below ground level with the
release of Phosphate from weathering
31. Trophic ___Pyramid__ compares
energy used by producers and other
32. 90% of __Energy____ is lost as heat
between each level of an energy
33. ____Biomass___ Pyramid shows the
dry mass of organisms.
34. _Pyramid of Numbers___ shows
the numbers of individual organisms at
each trophic level in an ecosystem.