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1194
• Jin Empire of northern China suffers from major
famine after the Yellow River Changes course
c.1200
• Abbasid Caliphate suffer from conflict
between Shi’ite and Sunni
• Rest of Muslim world struggling with
internal conflict, including the Seljuk Turks
1203-c.1227 CE
• Temuchin a Chief of Mongol Tribe
• Temuchin fathers four sons
Genghis
Khan
Jochi
Batu
Jagadai
Guyuk
Ogodei
Mongke
Tolui
Khubilai
Hulegu
1203 CE
• After distinguishing himself in a battle to regain
his stolen wife and Temuchin was named the
Genghis Khan or Universal Ruler
1209 CE
• Genghis begins his conquests by attacking the
Tanggut Empire, a Buddhist nation in northwest
China, bordering Tibet
1211-1215 CE
• Attacked the Jin
1216 CE
• Attacked Manchuria
1218
• Attacked Korea
1218
• Took Kara-Khitai
1219-1221
• Attacked Khorezim, Christians and
Muslims
1223
• Suppress revolts by the Jin and Tanguts
1227
• Genghis Khan Died
1227
• Empire divided among heirs
• Jochi’s son Bantu got Russia
– Golden Horde
• Jagadai got central Asia
– Empire of Jagadai
• Ogodei got Chinese Turkestan and the title
Grand Khan
• Tolui got the homeland
1229
• Ogodei officially gets title Great Khan and renews
war against Jin with the help of the Song and Tolui
1233
• Jin totally defeated and Northern China
under the control of the Mongols
1235
• Ogodei declares war on the
Song
1237
• Batu takes Moscow and
Kiev in Russia
1241
• Mongols (Golden Horde)
reached the borders of the Holy
Roman Empire
1241
• Death of
Ogodei, the
Great Khan
1246
• Guyuk, Ogodei’s
son becomes
Khan after his
fathers death
1255
• Middle East Falls to the
Mongols
1258
• Mongols of the il-khan
Kill the Caliph
1260
• Khubilai
becomes
Great Khan
(5th)
• Civil War
1260
• Kubilai Khan names Peking the
Capital of Empire of the Great
Khan
1260
• Mamluk defeat the Mongol
invasion of Egypt with help
from the Golden Horde
• Hulegu named il-khan by
Kubilai
1259
• Mongols take the Kingdom of
Tali in Northern China causing
a major migration to Thailand
1265
• Kubilai began an extended
and campaign in southeast
Asia
1271
• Kubilai takes the
Dynastic name Yuan
c. 1279
• Mongols of China
convert to Buddhism
1279
• China falls to the Mongols
c.1280
• Kubilai demanded tribute from
Ceylon and Malabar Coast
1292
• Kubilai demanded tribute from
Java, failed
Outcome
•Yuan Dynasty in China
•IL-Khanate in Persia
•Golden Horde in Russia
•Khanate of Jagadai in
Central Asia
Global Consequences of the Mongols:
Trade increased: silk, porcelain, regulated and safe
Increased Communication: individuals traveled across
continents, ideas about passports, coal mining, movable type,
metallurgy, math, gunpowder, bronze, pharmacology… spread
Disease Spread: Plague, Typhus, Influenza, & Smallpox
The IL Khan:
Killed last Caliph: weakened Muslim unity
Cultural Conflict: Mongol consumption of blood, leaders of IL Khan non-Muslim
Inter-Mongol Conflict: Warfare between Golden Horde and IL Khan over religion and
territory, involved Christian Crusaders and Mamluks in conflict, ended when new Khan
became Muslim
Tax Farming: Sold tax collecting rights to private investors, caused economic decline,
gov then had trouble supplying troops, took land to do this, this was non-taxable so
again tax revenue declined
Economic Failure: high taxes led to intro of paper money, did not work, lead to
rebellion
Overthrow: Timur, a new Central Asian Invader took over, Turkic but used Mongol
Army
Cultural Flowering: scholars & artist from China, Central Asia, and Middle East meet
in Baghdad, Timur actually forcibly relocated scholars to Baghdad, Results: a world
history, miniature paintings, algebra, trigonometry, astronomy influenced Europeans
like Copernicus, calendars, predicting eclipses, improved Astrolabes,
Golden Horde:
Trade: Benefited south more
Orthodox Church Cemented: Mongols used church to re-enforce power, helped
church
Northern Migration: Russian Princes of North Gained Privilege, Moscow and
Novogrod’s power increased, Kiev decreased, Princes of Moscow became Tsars
Economy: High taxes collected by Russian princes drained gold and silver
Mongols introduced paper money, little affect b/c
Russia had a barter ecomony
Isolation: Mongol domination cut Russia off from
Europe and may has slowed development
Centralization nearby: Mongol pressure increased
Gov power in Ottoman Empire, Lithuania, and Serbia
Yuan China:
Economic Decline: tax farming, paper money,
Chinafication: Mongols adopted much Chinese tradition, Confucianism made
strong, Mandarin
Lama Buddhism: Mongols adopt Buddhism of Tibet
Beijing: became capital, built forbidden city,
Unification: finally unify China into what it is today, worked to break down
cultural differences
Social Class: Mongols on top, Central Asians and Middle Easterns ran gov,
then northern Chinese, southern Chinese at bottom, Chinese became
merchants and formed a new Gentry class, Corporations formed, Urbanization
resulted
Medical improvements: blended Chinese with Greek and Middle Eastern