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The MONGOLS
• Mongols:
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Nomadic
Tribal/Clan organization
Warlike
Competition over natural resources
• Genghis Khan (Temujin) unified the Mongol tribes
– Unifies by creating alliances or through conquest
– Reorganizes their military structure
– Captures Jin capital in 1215
– Conquered as far west as the Caucasus area
– Dies 1227
The MONGOLS
• Ogodai
– Genghis’ son
– Conquered west into Russia
– Died suddenly
• Saved western Europe from invasion since they had to
go back to choose a new leader
• Kubilai Khan completed the conquest of China in 1279
• Khanates
– The division of Genghis’ conquests after his death. Know
who ruled each.
Impact of the Mongols
• The Mongols dominated the 13th century but in general, the
distinctive Mongol culture had split upon ethnic lines.
• One important overall impact of the Mongol conquests was at
first the disruption, and then the encouragement of the longdistance trade routes of Eurasia. After the initial shock of
Mongol attacks, a Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace) was
established that created a similar order that the Romans had
in their heyday.
• Another important impact of the Mongol unification was the
creation of one of the most destructive pandemics in world
history, known in Europe as the Black Death.
The Mongols and Islam in the Middle East
– Initially Islamic people were repelled by the shamanistic
Mongols but eventually the Il-Khan ruler declared himself
protector and advocate of Islam
The Mongol impact on Russia
• Russia was made up of small kingdoms who refused to
cooperate with each other against the Mongols and so
were easily defeated. Peasants sought protection from the
Mongols by paying homage(tribute) to Russian princes and
thus serfdom developed which lasted well into the 19th
century.. Moscow became the main tribute collection
center for the Mongols.
• China under Mongol control
– Kubilai Khan conquered the Song which finally succumbed
three years after he captured their capital in 1276. He
proclaimed himself Emperor and thus founded the Yuan
dynasty.
– An important aspect of Yuan rulers was their very
favorable attitude toward trade.
– Rulers that followed Kubilai Khan were weak and the
dynasty dissolved into the familiar chaos. Power was
claimed by a peasant named Ju Yuanzhang who founded
the Ming Dynasty which would rule China for the next
three centuries.
– The Ming believed that China had been weakened by
contact with foreign civilizations and trade was allowed
very cautiously.
Why
• Did Mongols wear silk shirts?