The MONGOLS • Mongols: – – – – Nomadic Tribal/Clan organization Warlike Competition over natural resources • Genghis Khan (Temujin) unified the Mongol tribes – Unifies by creating alliances or through conquest – Reorganizes their military structure – Captures Jin capital in 1215 – Conquered as far west as the Caucasus area – Dies 1227 The MONGOLS • Ogodai – Genghis’ son – Conquered west into Russia – Died suddenly • Saved western Europe from invasion since they had to go back to choose a new leader • Kubilai Khan completed the conquest of China in 1279 • Khanates – The division of Genghis’ conquests after his death. Know who ruled each. Impact of the Mongols • The Mongols dominated the 13th century but in general, the distinctive Mongol culture had split upon ethnic lines. • One important overall impact of the Mongol conquests was at first the disruption, and then the encouragement of the longdistance trade routes of Eurasia. After the initial shock of Mongol attacks, a Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace) was established that created a similar order that the Romans had in their heyday. • Another important impact of the Mongol unification was the creation of one of the most destructive pandemics in world history, known in Europe as the Black Death. The Mongols and Islam in the Middle East – Initially Islamic people were repelled by the shamanistic Mongols but eventually the Il-Khan ruler declared himself protector and advocate of Islam The Mongol impact on Russia • Russia was made up of small kingdoms who refused to cooperate with each other against the Mongols and so were easily defeated. Peasants sought protection from the Mongols by paying homage(tribute) to Russian princes and thus serfdom developed which lasted well into the 19th century.. Moscow became the main tribute collection center for the Mongols. • China under Mongol control – Kubilai Khan conquered the Song which finally succumbed three years after he captured their capital in 1276. He proclaimed himself Emperor and thus founded the Yuan dynasty. – An important aspect of Yuan rulers was their very favorable attitude toward trade. – Rulers that followed Kubilai Khan were weak and the dynasty dissolved into the familiar chaos. Power was claimed by a peasant named Ju Yuanzhang who founded the Ming Dynasty which would rule China for the next three centuries. – The Ming believed that China had been weakened by contact with foreign civilizations and trade was allowed very cautiously. Why • Did Mongols wear silk shirts?