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The Mongol Empire and the Yuan Dynasty The Origins of the Mongols: - A nomadic, tribal people with intense rivalries between clans. - Eventually, one tribal chieftain would rise to be supreme ruler of all the Mongol tribes. -Ogodei Khan, Kublai Khan and the Yuan dynasty - Genghis Khan’s personal conquests only took over the Northern region of China that was not actually ruled by Chinese at this time. - After his death, control of Mongolia and Northern China (the Great Khanate) passed to Temujin’s oldest son, Ogodei. -Ogodei very nearly turned all of Northern China into pasterual land but was persuaded by a foreign born first-place examination scholar of China not to do so. -It is not until 1279 that the Mongols, under the leadership of Temujin’s grandson, Kublai, conquer all of China. -The Yuan Dynasty is formed. -In order to maintain his power, Kublai issued the following laws in China. - Only Mongols could serve in the central government and military. The Chinese could still govern in the provinces. - Mongols were encouraged to avoid mingling with Chinese. -Society is divided into four Ethnic groups -Mongols -1st -Turks, Persians and Syrians -2nd (central asian allies) -Northern Chinese and barbarian tribes native to Northern China -Song Chinese -He also attempted several times to continue the Mongol conquest by attacking Korea, Southeast Asia and Japan. He failed twice in his invasions of Japan.