Download Coenzyme Q = Ubiquinone

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Genetic code wikipedia , lookup

Peptide synthesis wikipedia , lookup

Oxidative phosphorylation wikipedia , lookup

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating) wikipedia , lookup

Coenzyme Q10 wikipedia , lookup

Butyric acid wikipedia , lookup

Enzyme wikipedia , lookup

Fatty acid metabolism wikipedia , lookup

Vitamin C wikipedia , lookup

Citric acid cycle wikipedia , lookup

Specialized pro-resolving mediators wikipedia , lookup

Fatty acid synthesis wikipedia , lookup

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide wikipedia , lookup

Vitamin A wikipedia , lookup

Biochemistry wikipedia , lookup

Metabolism wikipedia , lookup

Hepoxilin wikipedia , lookup

Amino acid synthesis wikipedia , lookup

Biosynthesis wikipedia , lookup

QuickTime™ e un
decompressore TIFF (Non compresso)
sono necessari per visualizzare quest'immagine.
Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient. It is usually
grouped within the B-complex vitamins.
found in the lipids that make up cell membranes and in the
neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
4-Aminobenzoic acid (also known as paraaminobenzoic acid or PABA)
Lipoic acid
• Lipoic acid is an organosulfur compound.
• The R-enantiomer is biosynthesized and used as
a cofactor.
• As a cofactor it is covalently bound via an amide bond
to a specific lysine residue of lipoyl domains.
• In animals, the biosynthesis of carnitine
occurs primarily in the liver and kidneys
from the amino acids lysine and methionine.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is essential to the
synthesis of carnitine.
During growth or pregnancy,
the requirement of carnitine
might exceed its natural
A lipid in inner membrane of mitochondria.
Moves freely within membrane.
Carries electrons.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10) or ubiquinone is essentially a vitamin or vitamin-like
Coenzyme Q = Ubiquinone
– (1) fish; (2) organ meats, including liver, kidney and heart; and
(3) the germs of whole grains
– It is synthesized in all tissues.
– The biosynthesis of CoQ10 from the amino acid tyrosine requires at least eight vitamins and
several trace elements.
Coenzyme Q10 is the coenzyme for at least three mitochondrial enzymes
(complexes I, II and III) as well as enzymes in other parts of the cell.
CoQ10 has been studied in its reduced form as a potent antioxidant.
Coenzyme Q
Coenzyme Q
Coenzyme Q - 'promoted' to a
H2 C
A vital 'transport agent' in the use of oxygen to generate
energy, especially in the heart muscle.
Supplements do aid in many forms of heart disease,
gum disease, BUT >> slows Parkinsons/Alzheimers/
aging, relieves allergies, boosts athletic performance
and immunity, aids weight loss ?!
Causes of Deficiency
Significantly decreased levels of CoQ10 have been
noted in a wide variety of diseases in both animal
and human studies.
CoQ10 deficiency may be caused by
Insufficient dietary CoQ10.
Impairment in CoQ10 biosynthesis.
Excessive utilization of CoQ10 by the body
excessive exertion
acute shock states
4. or any combination of the three.
5. Drugs can cause CoQ deficiency
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors used to treat elevated blood cholesterol levels by blocking
cholesterol biosynthesis also block CoQ10 biosynthesis.
The resulting lowering of blood CoQ10 level is due to the partially shared biosynthetic
pathway of CoQ10 and cholesterol.
Non-nutrient compound
Found in plant-derived foods and have biological activity
in the body.
Some categories:
Antioxidants (anti-aging/cancer/heart disease?) catechins (berries, green/black tea), lycopene
(tomatoes,watermelon), bioflavanoids (citrus
fruit, grapes), coenzyme Q (nuts,oils).
Estrogen mimics (cancer inhibitors?) indoles (broccoli, cauliflower), isoflavones
(legumes), lignans & omega-3- fatty acids
(canola, flaxseed), genistein (soy).
Lycopene = red pigment in tomatoes, red
grapefruit, watermelon
QuickTime™ e un
decompressore TIFF (Non compresso)
sono necessari per visualizzare quest'immagine.
Historically it was believed to be part of the Vitamin B complex
and was called vitamin B13
It is manufactured in the body via a mitochondrial enzyme,
dihydroorotate dehydrogenase or a cytoplasmic enzyme of
pyrimidine synthesis pathway
It is used as a mineral carrier